# Summary methods for class multiPIM

### Description

Generate and print summaries of `"multiPIM"`

objects (which result from calling either the `multiPIM`

or the `multiPIMboot`

function). Summaries may be of type "statistical", "time" or "both" (default). Statistical summaries contain, for each exposure-outcome pair, the parameter estimate, the standard error, the test statistic, the unadjusted p-value, and the Bonferroni-adjusted p-value. Time summaries contain a breakdown by g vs. Q modeling, and (if super learning was used to generate the `"multiPIM"`

object) by super learner candidate, of the time taken to run `multiPIM`

.

### Usage

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 | ```
## S3 method for class 'multiPIM'
summary(object,
type = c("both", "statistical", "time"),
use.plug.in.se = is.null(object$boot.param.array),
alternative.se.matrix = NULL,
two.sided.p.vals = TRUE,
bf.multiplier = object$num.exp * object$num.out,
by.exposure = TRUE,
digits = 4,
...)
## S3 method for class 'summary.multiPIM'
print(x, by.exposure, digits, ...)
``` |

### Arguments

`object` |
an object of class |

`type` |
The type of summary required. Default is to include both statistical and timing information in the summary. |

`use.plug.in.se` |
logical value indicating whether the plug-in standard errors are to be used. Defaults to |

`alternative.se.matrix` |
matrix of standard errors which were obtained by the user through some method other than the normal plug-in (from |

`two.sided.p.vals` |
logical value. Should p-values be two-sided (for |

`bf.multiplier` |
what number should p-values be multiplied by in doing the Bonferroni Correction. Defaults to the number of exposure-outcome pairs. |

`by.exposure` |
logical value. If the summary is printed, and if there is more than one exposure AND more than one outcome, should each table correspond to the exposure-outcome pairs involving each exposure (for |

`digits` |
passed to |

`x` |
an object of class |

`...` |
for the summary method: currently ignored. For the print method: passed to |

### Value

For the summary method:

An object of class `"summary.multiPIM"`

, which will have different slots depending on the value of the `type`

argument.

The object will always have the following slots (regardless of the value of `type`

):

`type` |
the value of the type argument to summary. |

`digits` |
integer value which will be the default value passed to |

`call` |
a copy of the call which was used to generate the |

If `type`

is `"statistical"`

or `"both"`

, the result of summary will in addition have the following slots:

`summary.array` |
a three-dimensional array containing the information which can be used to build summary tables (see below). |

`two.sided.p.vals` |
logical value indicating whether p-values used are two-sided (for |

`stand.err.type` |
the type of standard error which has been used to generate this summary object: either |

`bf.multiplier` |
the value of the bf.multiplier argument |

`by.exposure` |
logical value which will be used by default when this object is printed to decide whether the tables should be arranged by exposure (for |

Details for the `summary.array`

slot: the first dimension corresponds to the exposures (columns of A from the `"multiPIM"`

object for which the summary is being generated), the second dimension to the outcomes (columns of Y) and the third dimension has length 5 and corresponds to the 5 relevant attributes for each exposure-outcome pair (i.e. the parameter estimate, the standard error of that estimate, the test statistic, the unadjusted p-value and the Bonferroni-adjusted p-value, in that order). Thus, `summary.array[1,2,3]`

would be the test statistic for the pair consisting of the first exposure (first column of A) and the 2nd outcome (2nd column of Y), while `summary.array[3,2,1]`

would be the parameter estimate for the pair consisting of the 3rd exposure and the 2nd outcome. To access the matrix containing all unadjusted p-values, use `summary.array[,,4]`

, to access the matrix consisting of everything that involves the fourth outcome use `summary.array[,4,]`

.

If `type`

is `"time"`

or `"both"`

, the result of summary will in addition have the following slots:

`main.time` |
total time (in seconds) taken to generate the multiPIM result which is being summarized. |

`g.time` |
time in seconds taken for running g models. |

`Q.time` |
time in seconds taken for running Q models. |

`g.Q.time.frame` |
data frame containing breakdown of total time by g vs. Q modeling, with seconds and percentages |

`g.sl.time` |
if g.method is "sl", time in seconds taken for running cross-validation of g models. |

`Q.sl.time` |
if Q.method is "sl", time in seconds taken for running cross-validation of Q models. |

`g.sl.xval.time.mat` |
if super learning was used for g, a matrix containing a breakdown by super learner candidate of the time taken for cross-validation of g models, with seconds and percentages. |

`Q.sl.xval.time.mat` |
if super learning was used for Q, a matrix containing a breakdown by super learner candidate of the time taken for cross-validation of Q models, with seconds and percentages. |

Print method:

The print method returns its first argument (`x`

, which should be an object of class `"summary.multiPIM"`

) invisibly.

### Author(s)

Stephan Ritter, with design contributions from Alan Hubbard and Nicholas Jewell.

### See Also

`multiPIM`

and `multiPIMboot`

### Examples

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 | ```
## load example from multiPIM help file
example(multiPIM)
## The results can also be displayed by outcome instead of by exposure:
summary(result, by.exposure = FALSE)
## now each table corresponds to all the pairs involving a single outcome
## may be best to store the summary object
sum.obj <- summary(result, by.exposure = FALSE)
sum.obj
## now the print method can be used to overide the values for
## by.exposure and digits (but not the other arguments):
print(sum.obj, by.exposure = TRUE, digits = 3)
## also can hand pick the info that we want from the summary.array slot
## e.g. let's say we are interested in all of the standard errors:
sum.obj$summary.array[,,2]
## or we are only interested in the exposure1-outcome2 pair:
sum.obj$summary.array[1,2,]
## or by name
sum.obj$summary.array["A1","Y2",]
``` |

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