In all surface complexation models, sorption is a function of
both chemical and electrostatic energy as described by the free energy
relationship. Sorption is stronger when the Gibbs energy decreases. Thus, a
counter-ion that carries a charge opposite to the surface charge tends to be
sorbed electrostatically, while a co-ion that carries a charge with the same
sign as the surface tends to be rejected. The example can be run using the
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