cotes: Newton-Cotes Formulas

View source: R/cotes.R

cotesR Documentation

Newton-Cotes Formulas


Closed composite Newton-Cotes formulas of degree 2 to 8.


cotes(f, a, b, n, nodes, ...)



the integrand as function of two variables.

a, b

lower and upper limit of the integral.


number of subintervals (grid points).


number of nodes in the Newton-Cotes formula.


additional parameters to be passed to the function.


2 to 8 point closed and summed Newton-Cotes numerical integration formulas.

These formulas are called ‘closed’ as they include the endpoints. They are called ‘composite’ insofar as they are combined with a Lagrange interpolation over subintervals.


The integral as a scalar.


It is generally recommended not to apply Newton-Cotes formula of degrees higher than 6, instead increase the number n of subintervals used.


Standard Newton-Cotes formulas can be found in every textbook. Copyright (c) 2005 Greg von Winckel of nicely vectorized Matlab code, available from MatlabCentral, for 2 to 11 grid points. R version by Hans W Borchers, with permission.


Quarteroni, A., R. Sacco, and F. Saleri (2007). Numerical Mathematics. Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

See Also

simpadpt, trapz


cotes(sin, 0, pi/2, 20, 2)      # 0.999485905248533
cotes(sin, 0, pi/2, 20, 3)      # 1.000000211546591
cotes(sin, 0, pi/2, 20, 4)      # 1.000000391824184
cotes(sin, 0, pi/2, 20, 5)      # 0.999999999501637
cotes(sin, 0, pi/2, 20, 6)      # 0.999999998927507
cotes(sin, 0, pi/2, 20, 7)      # 1.000000000000363  odd degree is better
cotes(sin, 0, pi/2, 20, 8)      # 1.000000000002231

pracma documentation built on Nov. 10, 2023, 1:14 a.m.