# bytes: Print the byte-wise representation of a value In pryr: Tools for Computing on the Language

 bytes R Documentation

## Print the byte-wise representation of a value

### Description

Print the byte-wise representation of a value

### Usage

```bytes(x, split = TRUE)

bits(x, split = TRUE)
```

### Arguments

 `x` An R vector of type `integer`, `numeric`, `logical` or `character`. `split` Whether we should split the output string at each byte.

### References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two's_complement for more information on the representation used for `int`s.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_floating_point for more information the floating-point representation used for `double`s.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_encoding for an introduction to character encoding, and `?Encoding` for more information on how R handles character encoding.

### Examples

```## Encoding doesn't change the internal bytes used to represent characters;
## it just changes how they are interpretted!

x <- y <- z <- "\u9b3c"
Encoding(y) <- "bytes"
Encoding(z) <- "latin1"
print(x); print(y); print(z)
bytes(x); bytes(y); bytes(z)
bits(x); bits(y); bits(z)

## In R, integers are signed ints. The first bit indicates the sign, but
## values are stored in a two's complement representation. We see that
## NA_integer_ is really just the smallest negative integer that can be
## stored in 4 bytes
bits(NA_integer_)

## There are multiple kinds of NAs, NaNs for real numbers
## (at least, on 64bit architectures)
print( c(NA_real_, NA_real_ + 1) )
rbind( bytes(NA_real_), bytes(NA_real_ + 1) )
rbind( bytes(NaN), bytes(0/0) )
```

pryr documentation built on Jan. 18, 2023, 1:08 a.m.