# Data on fresh milk expenditure.

### Description

Data on fresh milk expenditure, used by Arora and Lahiri (1997) and by You and Chapman (2006).

### Usage

1 |

### Format

A data frame with 43 observations on the following 6 variables.

`SmallArea`

:areas of inferential interest.

`ni`

:sample sizes of small areas.

`yi`

:average expenditure on fresh milk for the year 1989 (direct estimates for the small areas).

`SD`

:estimated standard deviations of

`yi`

.`CV`

:estimated coefficients of variation of

`yi`

.`MajorArea`

:major areas created by You and Chapman (2006). These areas have similar direct estimates and produce a large CV reduction when using a FH model.

### References

- Arora, V. and Lahiri, P. (1997). On the superiority of the Bayesian method over the BLUP in small area estimation problems. Statistica Sinica 7, 1053-1063.

- You, Y. and Chapman, B. (2006). Small area estimation using area level models and estimated sampling variances. Survey Methodology 32, 97-103.