multiscale.density: Multi-scale adaptive kernel density/intensity estimation

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

View source: R/multiscale.density.R

Description

Computes adaptive kernel estimates of spatial density/intensity using a 3D FFT for multiple global bandwidth scales.

Usage

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multiscale.density(
  pp,
  h0,
  hp = NULL,
  h0fac = c(0.25, 1.5),
  edge = c("uniform", "none"),
  resolution = 128,
  dimz = 64,
  gamma.scale = "geometric",
  trim = 5,
  intensity = FALSE,
  pilot.density = NULL,
  xy = NULL,
  taper = TRUE,
  verbose = TRUE
)

Arguments

pp

An object of class ppp giving the observed 2D data set to be smoothed.

h0

Reference global bandwidth for adaptive smoothing; numeric value > 0. Multiscale estimates will be computed by rescaling this value as per h0fac.

hp

Pilot bandwidth (scalar, numeric > 0) to be used for fixed bandwidth estimation of the pilot density. If NULL (default), it will take on the value of h0. Ignored when pilot.density is supplied as a pre-defined pixel image.

h0fac

A numeric vector of length 2 stipulating the span of the global bandwidths in the multiscale estimates. Interpreted as a multiplicative factor on h0. See ‘Details’.

edge

Character string dictating edge correction. "uniform" (default) corrects based on evaluation grid coordinate. Setting edge="none" requests no edge correction.

resolution

Numeric value > 0. Resolution of evaluation grid in the spatial domain; the densities/intensities will be returned on a [resolution x resolution] grid.

dimz

Resolution of z- (rescaled bandwidth)-axis in the trivariate convolution. Higher values increase precision of the multiscale estimates at a computational cost. See ‘Details’.

gamma.scale

Scalar, numeric value > 0; controls rescaling of the variable bandwidths. Defaults to the geometric mean of the bandwidth factors given the pilot density (as per Silverman, 1986). See the documentation for bivariate.density.

trim

Numeric value > 0; controls bandwidth truncation for adaptive estimation. See the documentation for bivariate.density.

intensity

Logical value indicating whether to return an intensity estimate (integrates to the sample size over the study region), or a density estimate (default, integrates to 1).

pilot.density

An optional pixel image (class im) giving the pilot density to be used for calculation of the variable bandwidths in adaptive estimation, or a ppp.object giving the data upon which to base a fixed-bandwidth pilot estimate using hp. See the documentation for bivariate.density.

xy

Optional alternative specification of the spatial evaluation grid; matches the argument of the same tag in as.mask. If supplied, resolution is ignored.

taper

Logical value indicating whether to taper off the trivariate kernel outside the range of h0*h0fac in the scale space; see Davies & Baddeley (2018). Keep at the default TRUE if you don't know what this means.

verbose

Logical value indicating whether to print function progress.

Details

Davies & Baddeley (2018) investigated computational aspects of Abramson's (1982) adaptive kernel smoother for spatial (2D) data. This function is the implementation of the 3D convolution via a fast-Fourier transform (FFT) which allows simultaneous calculation of an adaptive kernel estimate at multiple global bandwidth scales.

These ‘multiple global bandwidth scales’ are computed with respect to rescaling a reference value of the global bandwidth passed to the h0 argument. This rescaling is defined by the range provided to the argument h0fac. For example, by default, the function will compute the adaptive kernel estimate for a range of global bandwidths between 0.25*h0 and 1.5*h0. The exact numeric limits are subject to discretisation, and so the returned valid range of global bandwidths will differ slightly. The exact resulting range following function execution is returned as the h0range element of the result, see ‘Value’ below.

The distinct values of global bandwidth used (which define the aforementioned h0range) and hence the total number of pixel images returned depend on both the width of the span h0fac and the discretisation applied to the bandwidth axis through dimz. Increasing this z-resolution will provide more pixel images and hence greater numeric precision, but increases computational cost. The returned pixel images that represent the multiscale estimates are stored in a named list (see ‘Value’), whose names reflect the corresponding distinct global bandwidth. See ‘Examples’ for the easy way to extract these distinct global bandwidths.

The user can request an interpolated density/intensity estimate for any global bandwidth value within h0range by using the multiscale.slice function, which returns an object of class bivden.

Value

An object of class "msden". This is very similar to a bivden object, with lists of pixel images in the z, him, and q components (instead of standalone images).

z

A list of the resulting density/intensity estimates; each member being a pixel image object of class im. They are placed in increasing order of the discretised values of h0.

h0

A copy of the reference value of h0 used.

h0range

A vector of length 2 giving the actual range of global bandwidth values available (inclusive).

hp

A copy of the value of hp used.

h

A numeric vector of length equal to the number of data points, giving the bandwidth used for the corresponding observation in pp with respect to the reference global bandwidth h0.

him

A list of pixel images (class im), corresponding to z, giving the ‘hypothetical’ Abramson bandwidth at each pixel coordinate conditional upon the observed data and the global bandwidth used.

q

Edge-correction weights; list of pixel images corresponding to z if edge = "uniform", and NULL if edge = "none".

gamma

The numeric value of gamma.scale used in scaling the bandwidths.

geometric

The geometric mean of the untrimmed variable bandwidth factors. This will be identical to gamma if gamma.scale = "geometric" as per default.

pp

A copy of the ppp.object initially passed to the pp argument, containing the data that were smoothed.

Author(s)

T.M. Davies and A. Baddeley

References

Abramson, I. (1982). On bandwidth variation in kernel estimates — a square root law, Annals of Statistics, 10(4), 1217-1223.

Davies, T.M. and Baddeley A. (2018), Fast computation of spatially adaptive kernel estimates, Statistics and Computing, 28(4), 937-956.

Silverman, B.W. (1986), Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis, Chapman & Hall, New York.

See Also

bivariate.density, multiscale.slice

Examples

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data(chorley) # Chorley-Ribble data (package 'spatstat')
ch.multi <- multiscale.density(chorley,h0=1)
plot(ch.multi)

ch.pilot <- bivariate.density(chorley,h0=0.75) # with pre-defined pilot density
ch.multi2 <- multiscale.density(chorley,h0=1,pilot.density=ch.pilot$z)
plot(ch.multi2)

data(pbc)
# widen h0 scale, increase z-axis resolution
pbc.multi <- multiscale.density(pbc,h0=2,hp=1,h0fac=c(0.25,2.5),dimz=128) 
plot(pbc.multi)

sparr documentation built on March 16, 2021, 5:07 p.m.