Estimates the intensity of a point process on a linear network by applying kernel smoothing to the point pattern data.
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Point pattern on a linear network (object of class
Smoothing bandwidth (standard deviation of the kernel).
A single numerical value
in the same units as the spatial coordinates of
Additional arguments controlling the algorithm
and the spatial resolution of the result.
These arguments are passed either to
Optional. Numeric vector of weights associated with the
Character string (partially matched) specifying whether to use
a kernel based on paths in the network (
Character string specifying the smoothing kernel.
Logical value indicating whether to compute the
“equal-split continuous” smoother (
Kernel smoothing is applied to the points of
using either a kernel based on path distances in the network,
or a two-dimensional kernel.
The result is a pixel image on the linear network (class
"linim") which can be plotted.
distance="path" (the default)
then the smoothing is performed
using a kernel based on path distances in the network, as described in
described in Okabe and Sugihara (2012) and McSwiggan et al (2016).
continuous=TRUE (the default), smoothing is performed
using the “equal-split continuous” rule described in
Section 9.2.3 of Okabe and Sugihara (2012).
The resulting function is continuous on the linear network.
continuous=FALSE, smoothing is performed
using the “equal-split discontinuous” rule described in
Section 9.2.2 of Okabe and Sugihara (2012). The
resulting function is continuous except at the network vertices.
In the default case
computation is performed rapidly by solving the classical heat equation
on the network, as described in McSwiggan et al (2016).
The arguments are passed to
densityHeat.lpp which performs
Computational time is short, but increases quadratically
In all other cases, computation is performed by path-tracing
as described in Okabe and Sugihara (2012);
the arguments are passed to
which performs the computation.
Computation time can be extremely long, and
increases exponentially with
distance="euclidean", the smoothing is performed
using a two-dimensional kernel. The arguments are passed to
densityQuick.lpp to perform the computation.
Computation time is very short.
See the help for
densityQuick.lpp for further details.
There is also a method for split point patterns on a linear network
"splitppx") which will return a list of pixel images.
A pixel image on the linear network (object of class
or in some cases, a numeric vector of length equal to
sigma=Inf, the resulting density estimate is
constant over all locations,
and is equal to the average density of points per unit length.
(If the network is not connected, then this rule
is applied separately to each connected component of the network).
and Greg McSwiggan.
McSwiggan, G., Baddeley, A. and Nair, G. (2016) Kernel density estimation on a linear network. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 44, 324–345.
Okabe, A. and Sugihara, K. (2012) Spatial analysis along networks. Wiley.
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X <- runiflpp(3, simplenet) D <- density(X, 0.2, verbose=FALSE) plot(D, style="w", main="", adjust=2) Dq <- density(X, 0.2, distance="euclidean") plot(Dq, style="w", main="", adjust=2) Dw <- density(X, 0.2, weights=c(1,2,-1), verbose=FALSE) De <- density(X, 0.2, kernel="epanechnikov", verbose=FALSE) Ded <- density(X, 0.2, kernel="epanechnikov", continuous=FALSE, verbose=FALSE)
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