Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples
Wrapper function to automatically fill gaps in series or spatial fields inside a ncdf file and save the results to another ncdf file. This can be done via 1D, 2D or the spatio  temporal gap 3D filling algorithm of Buttlar et. al (2014).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17  gapfillNcdf(amnt.artgaps = rep(list(rep(list(c(0.05, 0.05)),
times = length(dimensions[[1]]))), times = length(dimensions)),
amnt.iters = rep(list(rep(list(c(10, 10)), times = length(dimensions[[1]]))),
times = length(dimensions)), amnt.iters.start = rep(list(rep(list(c(1,
1)), times = length(dimensions[[1]]))), times = length(dimensions)),
calc.parallel = TRUE, debugging = FALSE, debugging.SSA = FALSE,
dimensions = list(list("time")), file.name, first.guess = "mean",
force.all.dims = FALSE, gaps.cv = 0, keep.steps = TRUE, M,
max.cores = 8, max.steps = 10, n.comp = lapply(amnt.iters,
FUN = function(x) x[[1]][[1]][1] * 2), ocean.mask = c(),
pad.series = rep(list(rep(list(c(0, 0)), times = length(dimensions[[1]]))),
times = length(dimensions)), print.status = TRUE, process.cells = c("gappy",
"all")[1], process.type = c("stepwise", "variances")[1],
ratio.const = 0.05, ratio.test = 1, reproducible = FALSE,
size.biggap = rep(list(rep(list(20), times = length(dimensions[[1]]))),
times = length(dimensions)), tresh.const = 1e12, tresh.converged = 0,
tresh.fill = 0.1, var.names = "auto", ...)

amnt.artgaps 
list of numeric vectors: The relative ratio (length gaps/series length) of artificial gaps to include in the "innermost" SSA loop (e.g. the value used by the SSA run for each individual series/slice). These ratio is used to determine the iteration with the best prediction (c(ratio big gaps, ratio small gaps)) (see ?gapfillSSA for details ) 
amnt.iters 
list of integer vectors: amount of iterations performed for the outer and inner loop (c(outer,inner)) (see ?gapfillSSA for details) 
amnt.iters.start 
list of integer vectors: index of the iteration to start with (outer, inner). If this value is >1, the reconstruction (!) part is started with this iteration. Currently it is only possible to set this to values >1 if amnt.artgaps and size.biggap == 0. 
calc.parallel 
logical: whether to use parallel computing. Needs the packages doMC and foreach to be installed. 
debugging 
logical: if set to TRUE, debugging workspaces or dumpframes are saved at several stages in case of an error. 
debugging.SSA 

dimensions 
list of string vectors: setting along which dimensions to perform SSA. These names have to be identical to the names of the dimensions in the ncdf file. Set this to 'time' to do only temporal gap filling or to (for example) c('latitude','longitude') to do 2 dimensional spatial gap filling. See the description for details on how to perform spatiotemporal gap filling. 
file.name 
character: name of the ncdf file to decompose. The file has to be in the current working directory! 
first.guess 
character string: if 'mean', standard SSA procedure is followed (using zero as the first guess). Otherwise this is the file name of a ncdf file with the same dimensions (with identical size!) as the file to fill which contains values used as a first guess (for the first step of the process!). This name needs to be exactly "<filename>_first_guess_step_1.nc". 
force.all.dims 
logical: if this is set to true, results from dimensions not chosen as the best guess are used to fill gaps that could not be filled by the best guess dimensions due to too gappy slices etc. . 
gaps.cv 
numeric: ratio (between 0 and 1) of artificial gaps to be included prior to the first cross validation loop that are used for cross validation. 
keep.steps 
logical: whether to keep the files with the results from the single steps 
M 
list of single integers: window length or embedding dimension in time steps. If not given, a default value of 0.5*length(time series) is computed. 
max.cores 
integer: maximum number of cores to use (if calc.parallel = TRUE). 
max.steps 
integer: maximum amount of steps in the variances scheme 
n.comp 
list of single integers: amount of eigentriples to extract (default (if no values are supplied) is 2*amnt.iters[1] (see ?gapfillSSA for details) 
ocean.mask 
logical matrix: contains TRUE for every ocean grid cell and FALSE for land cells. Ocean grid cells will be set to missing after spatial SSA and will be excluded from temporal SSA. The matrix needs to have dimensions identical in order and size to the spatial dimensions in the ncdf file. As an alternative to a R matrix, the name of a ncdf file can be supplied. It should only contain one non coordinate variable with 1 at ocean cells and 0 at land cells. 
pad.series 
list of integer vectors (of size 2): length of the extracts from series to use for padding. Only possible in the one dimensional case. See the documentation of gapfillSSA for details! 
print.status 
logical: whether to print status information during the process 
process.cells 
character string: which grid/series to process. 'gappy' means that only series grids with actual gaps will be processed, 'all' would result in also non gappy grids to be subjected to SSA. The first option results in faster computation times as reconstructions for non gappy grids/series are technically not needed for gap filling, whereas the second option provides a better understanding of the results trajectory to the final results. 
process.type 

ratio.const 
numeric: max ratio of the time series that is allowed to be above tresh.const for the time series still to be not considered constant. 
ratio.test 
numeric: ratio (01) of the data that should be used in the cross validation step. If set to 1, all data is used. 
reproducible 
logical: Whether a seed based on the characters of the file name should be set which forces all random steps, including the nutrlan SSA algorithm to be exactly reproducible. 
size.biggap 
list of single integers: length of the big artificial gaps (in time steps) (see ?gapfillSSA for details) 
tresh.const 
numeric: value below which abs(values) are assumed to be constant and excluded from the decomposition. 
tresh.converged 
numeric: ratio (01): determines the amount of SSA iterations that have to converge so that no error is produced. 
tresh.fill 
numeric fraction (01): This value determines the fraction of valid values below which series/grids will not be filled in this step and are filled with the first guess from the previous step (if any). For filling global maps while using a ocean.mask you need to set this value relative to the global grid size (and not only the land mask). Setting this value to zero would mean that also slices/series without any "real" values are tried to be filled with the "first guess" value of the last iteration alone. This can only be done if the cross validation scheme is switched off (e.g. by setting amnt.artgaps and size.biggap to zero. 
var.names 
character string: name of the variable to fill. If set to 'auto' (default), the name is taken from the file as the variable with a different name than the dimensions. An error is produced here in cases where more than one such variable exists. 
... 
further settings to be passed to gapfillSSA 
This is a wrapper function to automatically load, gapfill and save a ncdf file using SSA. Basically it automatically runs gapfillSSA (see also its documentation) for all time series or grids in a ncdf file automatically. Theoretically and conceptionally all methods could also be applied to simple datacubes (i.e. R arrays) and not only ncdf files. However, this has not yet been implemented. The values for several function arguments have to be supplied as rather complicated nested lists to facilitate the usage of different values per step (see 'stepwise calculation' for details)
dimensions: It is generally possible to perform one, two, or spatiotemporal 3D SSA (as in Buttlar et al (2014)) for gap filling. This is set by using the argument 'dimensions'. If only one string corresponding to a dimension name in the target ncdf file is supplied, only vectors in the direction of this dimension are extracted and filled. If two dimension names are supplied, matrices (i.e. spatial grids) along these dimension are extracted and 2D SSA is computed. To start the 3D spatio  temporal scheme (Buttlar et.al (2014)) which iterates between 1D temporal and 2D spatial SSA, set dimensions = list(list("time", c("longitude","latitude"))).
stepwise calculation: The algorithm can be run step wise with different settings for each step where the results from each step can be used as 'first guesses' for the subsequent step. To do this, amnt.artgaps, size.biggap, amnt.iters, n.comp, M, tresh.fill and dimensions have to be supplied as lists. For each nth iteration step the values of the corresponding nth list element will be used. At each of these nth iteration steps, several repetitions with different dimensions are possible (as is the case with the 3D spatiotemporal scheme). To facilitate this, the individual list elements at each step have to be lists containing the different dimension names. As a consequence, all these arguments have to be nested lists. This is the case also if only one dimension is used (i.e. to do only temporal 1D SSA, dimensions = list(list('time')). One example for an application where supplying different settings for all these steps would be user defined spatiotemporal gap filling. This allows to clearly define which dimension (and M, gap amount etc) to use at each step of the process. On the contrary, the spatiotemporal gapfilling method applied by Buttlar et. al. (2014) uses identical settings for each (outer loop) iteration step and automatically determines which dimension to use. For this procedure the first list element of dimensions (and the other stepwise arguments) is recycled during each step. Hence, a list of only length one has to be supplied (dimensions = list(list(c('longitude','latitude'),'time')) ) (see details for dimensions above).
NCDF file specifications: Due to limitations in the file size, the ncdf file has to contain one variable (and the dimensional coordinate variables) (for the time being). This function will create a second ncdf file identical to the input file but with an additional variable called 'flag.orig', which contains zero for gapfilled values and 1 for not filled values. The function has only been tested with ncdf files with two spatial dimensions (e.g. lat and long) and one time dimension. Even though it was programmed to be more flexible, its functionality can not be guaranteed under circumstances with more dimensions.
non fillable gid cells: Using the 3D method would result in a completely filled datacube. To prevent the filling of grid cells where no reasonable guess via the gapfilling may be achieved (i.e. ocean grid cells in the case of terrestrial data), a matrix indicating these grid cells can be supplied (see 'ocean.mask')
Nothing is returned but a ncdf file with the results is written. TODO remove aperm steps TODO extract iloop convergence information for all loops TODO test inner loop convergence scheme for scenarios TODO indicate fraction of gaps for each time series TODO break down world into blocks TODO integrate onlytime into one dimensional variances scheme TODO facilitate one step filling process with global RMSE calculation TODO save convergence information in ncdf files TODO check for too gappy series at single dimension setting TODO create possibility for non convergence and indicate this in results TODO facilitate run without cross validation repetition TODO test stuff with different dimension orders in the file and in settings TODO substitute all length(processes)==2 tests with something more intuitive TODO put understandable documentation to if clauses TODO remove first guess stuff TODO incorporate non convergence information in final datacube TODO facilitate easy run of different settings (e.g. with different default settings) TODO switch off "force.all.dims" in case of non necessity TODO delete/modify MSSA stuff obsolete MSSA stuff start parallel processing workers insert gaps for cross validation determine different iteration control parameters prepare parallel iteration parameters determine call settings for SSA get first guess run calculation TODO try to stop foreach loop at first error message! test which dimension to be used for the next step TODO whole step can be excluded for "one step" processes determine first guess for next step use first guess from other dimensions in case of too gappy series exclude not to be filled slices (oceans etc) save first guess data TODO: add break criterium to get out of h loop check what happens if gapfillSSA stops further iterations due to limiting groups of eigentriples save process convergence information save results delete first guess files
Jannis v. Buttlar
v. Buttlar, J., Zscheischler, J., and Mahecha, M. D. (2014): An extended approach for spatiotemporal gapfilling: dealing with large and systematic gaps in geoscientific datasets, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 21, 203215, doi:10.5194/npg212032014
ssa
, gapfillSSA
, decomposeNcdf
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63  ## prerequisites: go to dir with ncdf file and specify file.name
file.name = 'scen_3_0.5_small.nc'
max.cores = 8
calc.parallel = TRUE
##example settings for traditional one dimensional "onlytime" setting and
## one step
amnt.artgaps < list(list(c(0.05, 0.05)));
amnt.iters < list(list(c(3, 10)));
dimensions < list(list("time"));
M < list(list(12));
n.comp < list(list(6));
size.biggap < list(list(5));
var.name < "auto"
process.type < "stepwise"
# .gapfillNcdf(file.name = file.name, dimensions = dimensions, amnt.iters = amnt.iters,
# amnt.iters.start = amnt.iters.start, amnt.artgaps = amnt.artgaps,
# size.biggap = size.biggap, n.comp = n.comp, tresh.fill = tresh.fill,
# M = M, process.type = process.type)
##example settings for 3 steps, stepwise and mono dimensional
dimensions = list(list('time'), list('time'), list('time'))
amnt.iters = list(list(c(1,5)), list(c(2,5)), list(c(3,5)))
amnt.iters.start = list(list(c(1,1)), list(c(2,1)), list(c(3,1)))
amnt.artgaps = list(list(c(0,0)), list(c(0,0)), list(c(0,0)))
size.biggap = list(list(0), list(0), list(0))
n.comp = list(list(6), list(6), list(6))
M = list(list(12), list(12), list(12))
process.type = 'stepwise'
# gapfillNcdf(file.name = file.name, dimensions = dimensions, amnt.iters = amnt.iters,
# amnt.iters.start = amnt.iters.start, amnt.artgaps = amnt.artgaps,
# size.biggap = size.biggap, n.comp = n.comp, tresh.fill = tresh.fill,
# M = M, process.type = process.type)
##example settings for 4 steps, stepwise and alternating between temporal and spatial
dimensions = list(list('time'), list(c('longitude','latitude')),
list('time'), list(c('longitude','latitude')))
amnt.iters = list(list(c(1,5)), list(c(1,5)), list(c(2,5)), list(c(2,5)))
amnt.iters.start = list(list(c(1,1)), list(c(1,1)), list(c(2,1)), list(c(2,1)))
amnt.artgaps = list(list(c(0,0)), list(c(0,0)), list(c(0,0)), list(c(0,0)))
size.biggap = list(list(0), list(0), list(0), list(0))
n.comp = list(list(15), list(15), list(15), list(15))
M = list(list(23), list(c(20,20)), list(23), list(c(20,20)))
process.type = 'stepwise'
# gapfillNcdf(file.name = file.name, dimensions = dimensions,
# amnt.iters = amnt.iters, amnt.iters.start = amnt.iters.start,
# amnt.artgaps = amnt.artgaps, size.biggap = size.biggap, n.comp = n.comp,
# tresh.fill = tresh.fill, M = M, process.type = process.type, max.cores = max.cores)
##example setting for process with alternating dimensions but variance criterium
dimensions = list(list('time', c('longitude','latitude')))
n.comp = list(list(5, 5))
M = list(list(10, c(10, 10)))
amnt.artgaps = list(list(c(0,0), c(0,0)))
size.biggap = list(list(0, 0))
process.type = 'variances'
max.steps = 2
# gapfillNcdf(file.name = file.name, dimensions = dimensions, n.comp = n.comp,
# tresh.fill = tresh.fill, max.steps = max.steps, M = M,
# process.type = process.type, amnt.artgaps = amnt.artgaps,
# size.biggap = size.biggap, max.cores = max.cores)

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