read_document: Generic Function to Read in a Document

Description Usage Arguments Value Examples

View source: R/read_document.R


Generic function to read in a .pdf, .txt, .html, .rtf, .docx, or .doc file.


  skip = 0,
  remove.empty = TRUE,
  trim = TRUE,
  combine = FALSE,
  format = FALSE,
  ocr = TRUE,



The path to the a .pdf, .txt, .html, .rtf, .docx, or .doc file.


The number of lines to skip.


logical. If TRUE empty elements in the vector are removed.


logical. If TRUE the leading/training white space is removed.


logical. If TRUE the vector is concatenated into a single string via textshape::combine().


For .doc files only. Logical. If TRUE the output will keep doc formatting (e.g., bold, italics, underlined). This corresponds to the -f flag in antiword.


logical. If TRUE .pdf documents with a non-text pull using pdftools::pdf_text() will be re-run using OCR via the tesseract::ocr() function. This will create temporary .png files and will require a much larger compute time.


Other arguments passed to read_pdf(), read_html(), read_docx(), read_doc(), or base::readLines().


Returns a base::list() of string base::vector()s.


## .pdf
pdf_doc <- system.file("docs/rl10075oralhistoryst002.pdf",
    package = "textreadr")

## .html
html_doc <- system.file("docs/textreadr_creed.html", package = "textreadr")

## .docx
docx_doc <- system.file("docs/Yasmine_Interview_Transcript.docx",
    package = "textreadr")

## .doc
doc_doc <- system.file("docs/Yasmine_Interview_Transcript.doc",
    package = "textreadr")

## .txt
txt_doc <- system.file('docs/textreadr_creed.txt', package = "textreadr")

## .pptx 
pptx_doc <- system.file('docs/Hello_World.pptx', package = "textreadr")

## .rtf
## Not run: 
rtf_doc <- download(

## End(Not run)

## Not run: 
## URLs

## End(Not run)

Example output

 [1] "Interview with Mary Waters Spaulding, August 8, 2013\nCRAIG BREADEN: My name is Craig Breaden. I’m the audiovisual archivist at Duke University,\nand I’m with Kirston Johnson, the curator of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke. The date\nis August 8, 2013, and we are in Lexington, NC, talking with Mary Waters Spaulding about her\nlife and family, and particularly about her father, H. Lee Waters. For the recording, please state\nyour full name, date of birth, and place of birth.\nMARY WATERS SPAULDING: My name is Mary Elizabeth Waters Spaulding, and my place of\nbirth was Lexington, NC, on May 14, 1942.\nBREADEN: Can you describe what Lexington was like when you were growing up in the\n1940’s?\nSPAULDING: I remember it as a small town, but a thriving small town. Probably the reason it\nwas thriving was because of all the furniture factories in town, and that employed a lot of people\nand kept the town going. Of course, they’re no longer here, but at that time, it was thriving with\nthose. It was a very friendly town. My brother and I felt like we actually pretty much knew\neverybody in town, and a lot of that has to do with the fact that we saw so many photographs\nfrom our father, and we went with him on location to take photographs, and we got to meet a lot\nof people. It was just a very friendly town, and people were very kind, very thoughtful, and were\nalways very cordial with our father, H. Lee. One thing is, I don’t think any of us ever felt unsafe\nin this town; it was a very safe town to be in. We never felt threatened by anything. It was a very\nhappy childhood living in Lexington.\nBREADEN: Tell us about the rest of your family.\nSPAULDING: My older brother is eight years older than I am. His name is Tom Waters. We had\nan older sister, who would have been thirteen years older than I. My brother is 8 years older\nthan I. She was their firstborn, and she had an illness, she was epileptic at a very young age.\nShe probably started having seizures at --\nTOM WATERS: About six months.\nSPAULDING: -- about six months old, and they progressively got worse. At that time in the ‘30s,\nthey didn’t have the medication to help with that. Probably just the phenobarb was all she was\ngiven. Her seizures became more severe as she grew. She got to be a larger person, and very\ndifficult to handle this, my parents had difficulty with that. The seizures got so severe that they\njust could not manage it, so they took her to a state institution in Raleigh, the state hospital, and\nthat’s where she stayed until she died. We were allowed to visit her, like only once a month,\nbecause they wanted that to be her home, and they didn’t want her to want to go back home\nwith us. So, if our visits were more frequent, she would get more used to our being there and\nmiss us more, I guess. She contracted tuberculosis while she was there, and died at the age of\ntwenty-four. I can’t remember how old she was when she went there. I would say she was a"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
 [2] "teenager, like fourteen or fifteen, so she was there that long. I think it was ‘53 when she died\nthere. I don’t remember, but she was twenty-four when she died. Our mother, who played a\nlarge part in our family, she was H. Lee’s, our father’s, partner in many ways. They worked\ntogether, she worked at the studio. She helped him with the photographs. She helped him with\nthe sittings. She would help pose the brides in their dresses and their veils, and fix their hair,\nand help them get their makeup just right. She would also retouch the films by hand. She would\nalso color-tint photographs to make them look like color, with oil. And later in years, she learned\nhow to do the heavy oil application to the large portraits, that actually looked more like paintings\nthan they did photographs. They were quite a team.\nKIRSTON JOHNSON: What was your mother’s name?\nSPAULDING: Mabel Elizabeth Jarrell was her maiden name, and of course, Waters. I have my\nElizabeth is from my mom. Mary Elizabeth is from Mabel Elizabeth.\nBREADEN: How did they come to meet?\nSPAULDING: That’s an interesting story, rather comical. She was actually trained to be a nurse,\nand she was doing some training there in Lexington hospital. Our father’s mother, Gertrude\nWaters, was in the hospital for pneumonia, and they were in the same room, and I guess it was\na warm summer day, and they had a fan in the room, and the fan needed to be plugged in. Well,\nboth of them got under the bed at one time to plug this fan in, and that’s where they met. And\nthe rest is history. (laughter) I think that’s a cute story.\nJOHNSON: Were they both from Lexington?\nSPAULDING: No. Where was she from? He was from South Carolina, wasn’t he?\nWATERS: South Carolina.\nSPAULDING: He was from Greer, Gaffney, that area. And he moved to Erlanger with his mom\nand dad in the thriving Erlanger Mill days. She grew up in the orphanage in Thomasville,\nbecause her parents died like a year apart while she was still small. She had older brothers and\nsisters who didn’t have to, I think there were only three that actually went to the orphanage. So\nthat’s -- (Waters interrupts) Excuse me?\nWATERS: Mills Home.\nSPAULDING: Mills Home, okay. That’s in Thomasville. She graduated from high school there,\nand then she went into nurse’s training. Where they came from was... Wilmington area?\nWATERS: Wilmington area.\nSPAULDING: Wilmington area. That’s where her family was from. And that’s really pretty much"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
 [3] "all I know about the background. I’m working on that.\nBREADEN: Between them meeting and H. Lee Waters getting interested in photography and\nsetting up his studio in Lexington, how did that come together?\nSPAULDING: Actually our dad was an assistant or like an apprentice to another photographer\nwho was in the same building at... 118 ½?\nWATERS: 118 ½.\nSPAULDING: 118 ½ Main Street.\nWATERS: The whole top floor.\nSPAULDING: The whole top floor of that building on the corner of Second Avenue and Main\nStreet. I can’t remember the gentleman’s first name.\nWATERS: Hitchcock.\nSPAULDING: Hitchcock was the last name. Mr. Hitchcock was a photographer, and he kind of\ntook our dad under his wing and offered him an assistantship or apprenticeship, and he loved it\nso much that he wanted to be a photographer on his own. So, when Mr. Hitchcock retired, which\nwas shortly after that --\nWATERS: About a year.\nSPAULDING: -- about a year after that, my father’s mother helped him buy the studio, so that\nthe two of them financially went together and bought the studio.\nWATERS: Financial documents of that transaction are down here in the archives (indiscernible).\nSPAULDING: All the equipment, and -- now, of course that top floor they rented, they didn’t own\nthe building, but he bought the photography business from him.\nJOHNSON: So all the equipment, everything…\nSPAULDING: Everything, all the cameras and everything, darkroom, chemicals, so it was\nalready pretty much set up, and then it grew from there.\nBREADEN: Did you ever work with your father in his studio?\nSPAULDING: Yes, I did. I can’t say I spent numerous hours there as a small child, but I\nremember going up and just enjoying being in the atmosphere of the photographs and all the\nhustle bustle of taking the sittings, down to developing the negatives, to printing, drying the"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
 [4] "photographs, proofing. And when I got to be in junior high school, I would actually, over the\nholidays, like Christmas and Easter, anytime I had free time, I would go up and help them, and\nthey would give me an allowance accordingly. But I was kind of a combination of receptionist,\ncashier, I would proof the photographs -- in our front window out front of the building, the old\nproof frames that you used to use with the negatives and the proof paper, you put it under the\nsun, and that’s how you got your proofs. So that was one of my jobs. Then I would dry the\nglossy prints on the big drum dryer, take those off and put them under glass with weights to\nmake them flat, because they come out and they’re a little bit curled. I would also do dry\nmounting, putting the dry mounting paper on the back of the photograph, place it on a larger\nformat mat, and using the dry mounting machine, would do that. And that took a little practice to\nget that straight, but I learned how to do that. And that’s probably about all I did, but I would\ncome home from college and work during the holidays up there, to help them with that--\nbecause it was a mad rush at Christmas time. There was a lot of business, so they needed\nsome help.\nJOHNSON: Was there walk-in business, or for the most part, did people make appointments\nwith your father?\nSPAULDING: There was some walk-in business. There was some. Well, he had a showcase\ndown the steps -- this was all second floor -- and down these long, straight steps, the main\nentrance to the studio, there was a showcase on either side of the stairwell, with an awning over\nit. And he would, maybe every couple weeks, change the photographs. So people just walking\non the streets would see these and say, “Oh, maybe I want my photograph taken. This looks\nreally cool; this looks good.” So they’d go up, and they would talk to him, and when you walk\ninto the showroom, he had photographs everywhere. Framed and unframed. So, that’s where\nhe got, I’d say, a lot of his business from walk-ins. But then, word of mouth: this person would\ntell their mother or father, or their children, or their cousins, and the word got around that this\nwas where to go for good photographs. So, some of that was word of mouth, and others would\ncall them on the phone and ask them for appointments.\nBREADEN: When you were working for him, did he talk about his time making films in other\ncommunities, in the ‘30s and early ‘40s?\nSPAULDING: You know, he really did not. I don’t understand that. I read that question and,\nthinking, he was so concentrated on what he was doing at the studio at that time, that was kind\nof the past, until the ‘70s. I was not around then, but he started talking to us about taking these\nfilms back to the communities, showing them at the civic clubs, and the civic clubs would buy\nthem for the community from him. So he wanted to see that they got to where they should be,\nthat these people would see them again, that they weren’t just sitting in our garage forever. That\nwas probably his first step of sharing those photographs with families and generations to come.\nJOHNSON: I have another quick question before we move on: Since you were working for your\nfather, can you talk a little bit about how he interacted with his clients, what you remember about\nhow he worked with his clients? I think that it might shed some light on how he interacted with"
 [5] "the people --\nSPAULDING: He was just a very friendly person. He liked people. He liked talking to people. So\nit was very easy for him, because of his personality, to approach someone, and for them to\napproach him. And in the studio, he would talk to them about, “Well now, what kind of picture do\nyou want taken? Do you want your child’s picture, would you like a very casual attire? Do you\nwant serious ones”’ Depending on the subject -- like wedding pictures, the brides liked to look\nvery sophisticated, happy but not laughing. He had the kind of personality that he loved taking\nchildren’s pictures, because he was kind of a big kid himself. He liked to be a little goofy with the\nkids and get them laughing, and he could do that. Some of the expressions that he got from\nchildren were phenomenal, if you see those prints. But as far as adults, they felt very\ncomfortable just talking to him. And a lot of times when mother and he were taking the\nphotographs, they would just talk to them, and then he would be snapping away. And they\nweren’t even really posing at times, because you get a more natural look if they’re talking to\nyou.\nWATERS: He was a charmer, yet very professional.\nSPAULDING: Yeah, he was a charmer, I think so. You could say that. But he had no problem\ninteracting, and people felt very comfortable with him.\nBREADEN: At what point did you first learn about his movies of local people?\nSPAULDING: It was probably after I graduated from college that it was even a subject of\nconversation. Because, he never really showed this to us as we were growing up. That was kind\nof his business at that time, but then when I was born in 1942, he promised my mother that he\nwould stay home, that he would no longer be on the road. So I guess you could blame me for\nthat, for him not taking them any longer. But that was on the road, that was traveling. And he\nwould be gone most of the week, come home, and get the films processed, and then when he\nwould receive them, he would edit them and take them back to the town. So he was on the road\na lot, between 1936 and ‘42. But you see, I don’t remember that because I wasn’t there, I wasn’t\nborn. All I know is after he stayed home, he was with me. And like I said, I really never knew\nabout these until probably the ‘60s. Then he didn’t really talk about them that much then, it’s just\nthat he had them, I knew they were in the garage, but I didn’t really know what they were, or\nhow important they were at that point. And you know, as you’re growing up, what your parents\ndo doesn’t quite seem as important as it really is. It’s like, it’s not that special, it’s just he’s being\na father and he’s supporting us. So at that point, neither my brother or I had any idea the impact\nthis was going to make on the history of Lexington and all these cities and towns that he filmed.\nJOHNSON: Later on, when he was going back to the small towns in the 1970s and screening\nthe films again, did he ever talk with you about how he came up with this idea to start traveling\naround?\nSPAULDING: You mean, to show them afterwards?"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
 [6] "JOHNSON: No, the initial idea to even make them.\nSPAULDING: No, not to me. He possibly did to my brother, but this was before my time, and\nmaybe he thought there was no reason to share that with me until I got to be older. And that’s\nwhat happened: I was out of college at the time, and it was explained to me then what he had\ndone, and like I said, it didn’t affect me at all, as far as him being away, because I didn’t know\nthat. All I knew was that he was around when I was a baby, and he kept his promise. As a\nmatter of fact, he was on the road when my mother went into labor with me, and he was trying\nto get back before I was born, and he returned two minutes, near the delivery room, before I\nwas born. He returned at 2:00, I was born at 2:02. So he did make it back. But he did continue\nmaking films, but mostly of Lexington and of family at that point. He just didn’t do any traveling\ninto other towns to make films.\nBREADEN: And I want to ask you about that in a minute, but also, once you did start talking to\nhim about these, did you get different stories from him versus your mother regarding the films?\nSPAULDING: No, I don’t remember my mother talking about them at all. I don’t think she ever\nchimed in on that. And, as a matter of fact, I know, with that generation, sometimes you have to\nreally pull to get information from them. Because, that’s just what he did, that’s the way it was.\nHe wasn’t intending to make a huge impact on the world; he was supporting his family. He was\ntrying to get through the end of the Depression, and make it work for the family. Even though he\nhad to be on the road. He was just a very creative person. I don’t know if he knew of other\nitinerant movie makers. He possibly did through reading magazines and newspapers, but this\nwas his ideas of going to the towns, and the way he edited films, that was pretty creative. He\nwas just a very creative individual. And the fact that, how he advertised it, once he had taken\nthe films, he would place a big poster, a placard on top of his car with braces. And he would ride\naround town with this poster saying “See yourself on the big screen,” with certain dates, and he\nwould also have a microphone hooked up with a speaker on the car. And he would be talking as\nhe’s driving around town, advertising this feature, and the fact that when they come to the\ntheater to see that movie, they would also see themselves on the big screen. And that attracted\na lot of attention.\nBREADEN: You’ve said earlier, before we did the interview, I’d like to touch on this again--\nwhen he came back, he brought that kind of big personality back with him, and applied it but at\nhome. Can you tell us about some of the ways he followed events in Lexington, and how you\nmight have been involved in some of those things?\nSPAULDING: I don’t think anything went on in Lexington that was of any size at all, that he\ndidn’t want a part of it, and he didn’t want to record it, and to save that for the archives. In his\nmind, his photographs were his archives. He wanted to record the images of the town and the\nevents, especially like when the servicemen would be bussed off to wherever they were going to\nbe stationed and trained for the war. He would come to the depot and take a group picture of\nthat group of men going that day."                                                                                             
 [7] "WATERS: Sometimes on the steps of the courthouse.\nSPAULDING: Yeah, and the exhibit that the Davidson County Museum had of, I don’t know\nwhat they called it, the veterans gallery-- lots of veterans brought in photographs, and many of\nthem were taken by our dad, and there were many photographs that he had taken of the\nservicemen before they left Lexington. And possibly, an observation I made by looking at these\nphotographs, this could have been, for some of them, the last picture that was taken of them.\nWATERS: There was a large billboard, where the Lexington State Bank is now, with the names\nof every one of the draftees. Hundreds of names up there, and three or four big panels, a giant\nbillboard. It was the military honor roll. Any military of any kind, for any length of time, your name\nwas on that list, (indiscernible) and at one time more than we did.\nSPAULDING: Very possible. But anything that was going on, like the photographs -- I don’t think\nhe had any movies of High Rock Dam. Did he make all still photographs of that? High Rock\nDam. He documented that from the time the ground was broken up through the completion of it.\nWATERS: The little museum there has the very camera.\nSPAULDING: Furniture factory parties. Any kind of event that he could record that and save it\nfor that particular company or that set of people. I remember one instance, and I used to go with\nhim to many of these parties, and just carry a bag or just go along for the fun of it, and just be\nwith our dad. It was a lot of fun-- he was just a fun person, and one time we were on the stage\nof Lexington Senior High, which was at that time on which avenue, the big --?\nWATERS: State Street.\nSPAULDING: State Street, okay. And we were on stage, and there was a Christmas program.\nSanta Claus was in a huge box, and my job for that little assistantship, was to hold these two\nflashes, photograph flashes that you use for taking photographs. But this wasn’t taking a\nphotograph. The purpose of these flashes was to blind, momentarily, the audience, so that they\ncould not really see Santa Claus popping out of the box. And when I got the signal from him to\npush the flash button, that’s what I did. That was just a fun thing to do. So, different things like\nthat. Sometimes, some of these memories are so deep, that as I’m talking with you, they’re\nhidden until they start coming to the surface, just like in a computer, it’s not right at the top until\nyou start digging a little deeper.\nWATERS: That’s the emotional rollercoaster. Going through all these things, and finding out\nthings we never knew. We didn’t discover a lot of the genius that he really was until we dug\ndeeper.\nBREADEN: Many people have noted that your father filmed in black communities in the towns\nhe visited when he was making his movies of local people, almost as regularly as he filmed in"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
 [8] "the white communities. Did he ever share with you this aspect of his work, or what that might\nhave meant maybe in a larger sense?\nSPAULDING: You know, I can’t say that he shared it with me. I became aware of this as my\nbrother and I were unearthing many of the photographs that he had taken. This has been in the\nlast ten years as we’ve gone through so many photographs. And, he never really talked about,\n“Oh, I went into a black community today.” He never mentioned that. He never said ‘black,’ he\njust said “I went to this party,” or this event. There just isn’t a lot in my memory about him talking\nabout that. It was just natural for him to do it, because they were people and it was an event,\nand he wanted to be a part of it. And he was invited possibly, because they felt a connection to\nhim, with his personality, and the fact that he was not there to be intimidating, or to be, I don’t\nknow --\nWATERS: He wasn’t exploiting them.\nSPAULDING: No, he wasn’t exploiting them. It was just, they liked being on camera. And\nprobably, possibly, maybe not a lot of black people had cameras, or at least video, film\ncameras. But you can see by looking at the photographs that they’re really happy to have him\nthere. That you’d never guess that he was a white person taking pictures of a black community.\nWATERS: Some of the greatest smiles I’ve ever seen are in those black pictures.\nSPAULDING: Yes, they were just happy. Happy to be in the pictures.\nJOHNSON: I wonder about his studio photography business, and black communities in\nLexington, North Carolina. Did you find that he was photographing black communities, black\nfamilies, just as much as, as early as the 1930s, ‘40s?\nSPAULDING: Yes, we found that in our dig, that many, many black families, and reunions, and\nbirthday parties, and church reunions, like outside churches -- you could see the church in the\nbackground, and it was like homecoming day for the church, you could see the whole\ncommunity of the church in front of the church. He was invited to do that. Not that he really\nsearched that out, but once people found out that he was an excellent photographer, they did.\nThat’s what they wanted, was a group picture. Or families would come in, like grandparents and\ngrandchildren, and mothers and fathers, and have a group picture taken, or just individuals, like\nservicemen. We found a lot of servicemen’s photographs. Black, and white. So, he had a really\ngood business in both aspects.\nBREADEN: As time moved on, you mentioned earlier that he and your mother would go to\nworkshops to get adopt new techniques. Can you talk about that a little bit?\nSPAULDING: Yes. I even went to one with them, or maybe more than one. I remember one\nspecifically. I was probably nine, ten, or eleven. We went to Chicago. It was a convention, and\nwhat I meant by workshops, it was probably workshops within the convention. And they would"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
 [9] "have on stage a professional photographer posing and showing different techniques of taking\nthe photographs, different ways of styling them, of styling the fashion and the hair, and how to\nlight and basically how to take better photographs. And I think each time they went to one of\nthose workshops and conventions, they brought back a lot of knowledge. Because, they were\nserious, they didn’t go just for a good time. They went to research. They went to be educated.\nWATERS: One time he was president of the North Carolina Photographers Association.\nSPAULDING: I forgot about that. Yeah.\nBREADEN: When was that?\nWATERS: I’m not sure of the dates.\nSPAULDING: I would say it’s probably in the ‘50s. But, he also gained many friendships that\nway, of other photographers, and you know, as an artist, artists learn from other artists. You\ncan’t reinvent the wheel. You’ve got to share your ideas, and you can’t be selfish about that.\nBecause, you can take what that person taught you, and do that as well as go a step further.\nAnd whatever was out there to learn, he wanted to learn more about photography, and how to\nget the best portraits and the best photographs that he could take. Again, our mother went to\nworkshops to learn how to do the color tinting, and how to retouch. So she was willing to study\nthis to make it better. So, it wasn’t a fly by night operation. It was a lifetime commitment to this. I\nwouldn’t say it was really a job for him. It was entertaining for him. He just loved it so much. It\nwas a passion, and yes, it was hard work-- weddings especially. I went to many weddings with\nhim, and that was really hard work. That’s very difficult. But he just loved what he did, and what\nhe made financially was kind of the tip of the iceberg for him. There’s so much enjoyment and\npleasure from it, too. I’m not saying he didn’t have bad days, we all have those, but basically, it\nwas fun for him to be a photographer. And if we can all say that, that our job is fun, that’s a\nblessing in itself.\nJOHNSON: Did he have any hobbies, or passions outside of film and photography that you\nremember? Just thinking about H. Lee Waters at the end of the day or on the weekends, not\ndoing his --\nSPAULDING: Well, he did like to ride his motorcycle. He had many motorcycles in his time.\nNow, we’re not talking about the big Harleys, we’re talking about little Hondas, that didn’t go real\nfast, and you could ask anyone in the community that remembers him at all, they remember this\nlittle icon riding around in a three-piece suit on his motorcycle. He didn’t wear jeans, he didn’t\nwear casual shirts, he would wear a three-piece suit, riding on the motorcycle. So he really\nenjoyed that.\nWATERS: That’s in the old days.\nSPAULDING: And he liked to go visit the orphanage home in Lexington, and I would go many"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[10] "times with him to do that. And he would take -- this is all things that I’m just starting to remember\n-- he would buy huge, 16mm films of feature films that the children would enjoy. He would take\nhis projector and have a movie night, either outside or inside, for the orphanage. And he just\nloved entertaining the orphans. He would even take some of them some days. I would go with\nhim, or he would go with them, and he would take them on rides in the little scooter, or Honda,\nthat he had. In those days, we didn’t have to have helmets, and we could ride on the gas tank,\nwe could ride behind him. You know, it just wasn’t the same. Probably not real safe, but that’s\nthe way it was. He loved the church. One of his hobbies for the church, he thought was his\nmission, was to distribute tracts. Are you familiar with what tracts are?\nJOHNSON: ‘Tracts’ with a ‘t’.\nSPAULDING: Yes. He would distribute those throughout the town, actually. The train station,\nthe bus station, the post office, where else would he have done that?\nWATERS: He would on an excursion on the trains sometimes, make sure everybody on the\ntrain got one.\nSPAULDING: Oh yeah, he would hand them out, you know, or he would leave them. He was\njust a very spiritual person, he and our mother both were very spiritual. And he loved the church,\nand he loved to do things for the church. So yes, he did have hobbies, he did have a lot of\ninterests other than photographs and photography. All of that has to do with the complete\nperson, and that has to do with how kind he was to people, and how he felt that it was important\nto treat people equally, and to not discriminate.\nWATERS: I can remember him taking gift baskets at Christmas around to these needy homes.\nOne young boy, he started a friendship with, he asked him to go to church with him. The little\nboy didn’t have any church clothes, so my dad bought him a church suit, and took him to church\nwith him. And just spiritual little things like that, just little tidbits, little hiccups along the way, a\nlittle comma here, a little semicolon there, and something in parentheses after what his main\nbody of movement is. These little incidences show the depth of his character.\nJOHNSON: And he really made a living from doing things for other people, doing things for the\ncommunity, documenting the community, and giving back to the community by screening those\nfilms.\nSPAULDING: Yes, he did.\nBREADEN: Did you have movie night at your house?\nSPAULDING: Oh yes!\nBREADEN: What was movie night like?"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
[11] "SPAULDING: Well, movie night was when he took those same kind of feature films, I remember\none specifically was called “Shriek in the Night.” It was a horror movie. Now, nothing like our\nhorror movies today, but at our age, it was a horror movie. It was scary. But he would have\nmovie night for the neighborhood. We would advertise it with posters on telephone poles. Come\nto 405 for movie night. We would make homemade ice cream. We had a swing set. It was just a\ntotal entertainment night, so we’d pop popcorn, or serve the ice cream while they’re watching\nthis movie. In the backyard now, in the summertime. It was only summer. And I can remember\none time when he showed that “Shriek in the Night,” Tom did something really strange, I can’t\nremember exactly what it was, but he tried to scare everybody. I mean, we’re sitting there -- he’s\neight years older than we are -- and here are these little 5, 6, 7 year olds, and we’re scared of\nthis movie, and he comes around and spooks everybody. You don’t remember that, do you?\nWATERS: No.\nSPAULDING: Well, I do. Because we just jumped out of our skin, and it was just fun. It was fun\ngrowing up in that household, because he always had something fun going on. We would even\nhave circus night. You don’t remember this, Tom, because this was after he left, but all my\nfriends in the neighborhood, we’d come up with some special talent that we had, or some\nspecial thing that we wanted to do a circus act. From trapeze, to ballet, to tap, to acrobats, to\nbeing a clown, or whatever, so we’d have circus night. He would provide the spotlight -- it was\nafter dark -- he would provide the spotlight. He had an arc light spotlight, and he would play\nmusic, he would also do drumrolls because he was musical. Oh, I forgot about this. He was a\ndrummer, and he played the vibraphone and the…\nWATERS: Marimba.\nSPAULDING: Marimba, yes. And the trumpet, didn’t he play the trumpet?\nWATERS: Yes, he played the trumpet.\nSPAULDING: So he was very musical.\nWATERS: He was in one of the earliest Erlinger bands there was.\nSPAULDING: So he would accompany the circus, along with some 78 records. And he would\nput the spotlight on us. And the drumroll when I was on the trapeze, but it certainly wasn’t\nanything dangerous, but he made it sound dangerous. (Laughter) And I think he enjoyed it as\nmuch or more than we did. This is just the little kid in him, and we were always doing something\nfun. We had lots of animals: we had chickens, and roosters, and ducks, and cats, and dogs, and\nfish, and I think we had one goat. So he loved taking care of animals, too, he loved animals, and\nhe’s passed that on to us. And I love animals.\nJOHNSON: Sounds like you two had a wonderful childhood."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
[12] "WATERS: (coughing) In fact, I remember (coughing) quite frequently. And it was an outgrowth\nof what he’d done (coughing). He’d show them in the top window up there in the front of the\nbuilding where he made the proofs, at night he would set up a projector in that window and\nshoot it across the street, to a giant screen over the building next door over there, not next door\nbut across the street. He got permission from the building owner to put this giant screen up\nthere, and show it right across Main Street, and he did that for I don’t know how long, until the\npolice made him quit, for making a traffic hazard. People were standing in the streets down\nthere, parked their cars, and have an outdoor theater. Show movies with local people in there,\nanother one was “Ten Laps to Go,” I think we may still have one of those. (indiscernible)\nSPAULDING: We probably do. And then he used to show -- what were the funny movies? Did\nhe show Abbott and Costello? I think he owned one of those.\nWATERS: Felix the Cat.\nSPAULDING: And Felix the Cat. The cartoons of the original Mickey Mouse. So he would\npurchase those and show them on movie night for our pleasure.\nJOHNSON: Was he a movie-goer? Do you remember him going to the theater?\nSPAULDING: No.\nWATERS: Before your time, he went to the theaters a lot of times. He bought the most war\nbonds for one particular time period, for a contest, and won the pass to the theater for a year.\nSo, he’d see just about every movie that came on screen.\nSPAULDING: I did not know that. I guess I was his entertainment after I was born.\nJOHNSON: Can you tell us a little bit about your mother? She was such an integral part of the\nphotography business, and as you said earlier, they were partners in many ways. What was she\nlike as a person? Did she have hobbies outside of being a mother and working with your father?\nSPAULDING: She did, but I didn’t realize there were hobbies until I was in high school or\ncollege. Her hobby was me growing up, I guess, because I was eight years behind him. I do\nremember when she was learning how to do, or doing the color tinted photographs, she would\nstay with me at home, and do that at home. I remember sitting there with her as a toddler, or six,\nseven, eight years old, and she would give me another print and let me do it, too. So I would\ncolor the prints right along with her. And that’s how I got interested in my art career. And she\nalso loved flower arranging. She loved growing African Violets. She had one whole room with\nlots of natural light in it, that she grew African Violets, just award winners. She even --\nWATERS: Cross-pollinated.\nSPAULDING: -- cross-pollinated ones to come up with new ones. I mean, that was a hobby"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
[13] "during all this time. Plants, and especially African violets, and flower arranging. And then, in the\n‘70s, she took a painting course from a local artist and did paintings not from photographs, but\njust paintings. So, she was a true artist, in every way. A very low key person. She was\ngregarious, she was friendly, but not as outgoing as he was. I think that generation, the mother\nand the wife didn’t feel as free to be as outgoing as they are now. Because they weren’t as\nworldly. But she really enjoyed doing what she was doing at the studio. But as far as her\npersonality, she was just a real sweet lady. Never went into nursing after they got married,\nbecause shortly after they were married -- did he go into the business before they were\nmarried?\nWATERS: He went into the business in 1926.\nSPAULDING: Yeah, so maybe he went into business shortly before they were married, so she\nassisted him.\nWATERS: They were married on Christmas day.\nSPAULDING: Yes, they were married on December 25. But she was pretty much the backbone\nof that studio as far as --\nWATERS: (indiscernible)\nSPAULDING: -- keeping him organized. You know, she was really good at that.\nBREADEN: Did she keep the books?\nSPAULDING: No, she didn’t keep the books, did she?\nWATERS: I think they both did.\nSPAULDING: Yeah, I don’t remember that. I was just having such a good time, I didn’t go into\nall of that. (laughter) Why would I have to worry about the books?\nBREADEN: He did some very striking work at High Rock Dam in the 1920s, and obviously when\nhe came back to Lexington. Did he ever show any of his still photographs around town at all?\nWATERS: Oh, yeah. A whole bunch of them.Turned them over to Catherine at the High Rock\nDam Project, at the museum, but they got misplaced or something. I don’t know what happened\nto them. But he made over a hundred pictures over a period of two and a half years, parts of\n‘26, ‘27, and ‘28. I can still remember the print number 106, 107, 108. So he made well over a\nhundred. And he’d go down there once a month and take a series of them. Almost didn’t get\nback one day-- started snowing while he was down there. He got stuck in the snow and started\nwalking back to Lexington, and no roadsides to be seen -- it was all white. So he found the\nrailroad tracks, and he knew the railroad tracks went to our house up in Lexington. It’s the one"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
[14] "that goes by our house right now. Well (indiscernible). He followed the track and came across a\nfarmhouse and knocked on the door, and he asked if he could use the phone. But I don’t think\nthey had a phone. They asked him to stay the night. He had to get out of there in the morning.\nAnd he basically got his car back, I don’t remember all the follow-up details, but if these people\nhadn’t taken him in, he might have been caught in that blizzard and that’d have been the end of\nH. Lee Waters Studio, but to hear him tell it was a rather -- it was a life experience, you don’t\nmind going through it once, but don’t want to go through it twice.\nBREADEN: He would have examples of his photographs in the windows of the shopfront\nbelow?\nWATERS: Sometimes. I don’t know that he ever made a full display of the High Rock Dam\nProject. He was working for Alcoa, and he retained the films, made the pictures, and put them in\nalbums once in a while to show his scenes of the construction around town. He made some of\nthe textile mills. One thing that came to mind is that a number of what we call cotton mills,\ntextile, and besides the furniture factories, there were about six or eight of those. There were\nalso about six or eight textile mills.\nSPAULDING: I forgot about those. Especially Erlanger.\nWATERS: That’s what brought them up here. Jobs in South Carolina were scarce, so they put\nall three of them to work up here at Erlanger. Dad worked for fifty cents a day, and my\ngrandmother sewed in labels, and his dad worked on the machinery, the looms, and was a\ngeneral technician. But they were totally involved in the community of Erlanger there. I think he\ntook quite a few pictures of the midway up through Erlanger, if they had a picnic day or\nwhatever.\nSPAULDING: As a teenager he was interested in photography.\nWATERS: Yeah, he had his first dark room in the basement of the house they lived in. It was\nthe second house off the corner of Highway 52 North, Old Winston Road. My grandfather,\nThomas Butner Waters, he bargained for the house. They wanted to get the Waters family up\nhere as fast they could. They built the second house for one of the top management people,\nmaybe the superintendent, but he said “No, that’s the house that I want.” And they bickered and\nargued back and forth a little bit, and finally he got that house. They actually built the last one--\nbut he got it-- and that’s where they set up his first dark room in the basement of that house.\nThey had a little self-player piano-- he played piano too, by the way-- as well as the drums and\nthe marimba and xylophones. But he could play the piano, and I remember he used to play\nalong with the hymns at church, when (indiscernible) was here, not too many years ago, and he\nstarted playing one tune, and he would change the key to G, or whatever it was--\nSPAULDING: He would transpose.\nWATERS: Transpose, yeah. And it was absolutely amazing that this old man with no music at"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[15] "all could sit there and transpose from one key to the next, and go right along like nothing had\nhappened. He knew music.\nSPAULDING: You could probably describe this as Renaissance man. Pretty good description of\nhim?\nJOHNSON: I would say.\nBREADON: Did he and your mom both keep going to the conferences and workshops over\ntime, like after you left?\nSPAULDING: You know, I really don’t know that. I think I remember them occasionally going to\none. Some of them were just like workshops, they weren’t the conventions. Some of them\nwere just the workshops, where maybe there was one on a particular subject that they wanted\nto learn more about, and they would go. But once I left for college in 1960, I don’t know how\nmany more they went to. I would imagine they did, because they kept wanting to do better what\nthey were doing.\nWATERS: They had one of their conventions right here in Lexington.\nSPAULDING: Oh, did they?\nWATERS: The studio was the host of (indiscernible) and I don’t remember if it was for lighting or\nposing, or what it was, but they taught one of the courses there.\nSPAULDING: Ok. Yeah, they were always seeking to become better at what they were doing.\nBREADON: Was there a point where they decided to wind down the business?\nSPAULDING: No, there was no point. It was a gradual transition. Now, my mother died when\nshe was 66. Actually, she died in Pennsylvania. She had a heart attack in my home, right after\nour last son was born in ‘74, and she was in the hospital for about a month. After the heart\nattack she had a stroke, ten days after that, and then from there they were going to move her to\nour house until she could be flown home, but she didn’t last that long. She died a little less than\na month after her heart attack on Mother’s Day in our house. But she had semi-retired at the\ntime. She had taken up gardening-- she loved gardening-- and the first real garden she had\nwas that summer, right across the street from their home. She was using a tiller, and it probably\nwas just too much for her. She wasn’t a real physical person. She wasn’t like today, where\npeople go to the gym or they walk or run. She seemed healthy, but I think she must have had\nsome heart problems, and they were possibly--\nWATERS: Angina.\nSPAULDING: Angina, and they didn’t treat them the same way that they do now. If she were"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[16] "living in this decade, she probably would not have died at that young age.\nWATERS: Her twin sister lived until she was 95.\nJOHNSON: She had a twin sister?\nSPAULDING: Oh yes, she did. She lived to be 95.\nJOHNSON: I see. And they were in the orphanage together?\nSPAULDING: Yes, they were.\nWATERS: And then there was the younger sister Vivien.\nSPAULDING: Yeah, Vivien. There was three of them; the twins and one younger one, and\nthere were three older siblings.\nBREADEN: So after 1974, then your father ran the studio on his own.\nSPAULDING: Yes, but even by that time he was winding down. He would just go up when he\nfelt going up, and would just take appointments by phone, and he didn’t do weddings anymore.\nHe gradually just wound down to accommodate his aging body.\nWATERS: The dementia was setting in by then too. He’d get tired quickly.\nSPAULDING: So it wasn’t just that one day he decided not to do it, it was--\nWATERS: He pushed as long as he could. And then I advised him very strongly, I said, “Dad\nyou don’t need to be doing this.” But then he was getting his orders mixed up, and one\nSaturday we had the children up here and an half of them over here, and I remember the last\npart of that time thinking (indiscernible) locked off one end of it.\nSPAULDING: Yeah, it was just time.\nBREADEN: Was it at that point that he started looking back at these older films, and trying to\nget them back to their communities, or was it before that?\nSPAULDING: It was before that. I don’t think he did anymore of that after she died, did he?\nWATERS: No, he didn’t.\nSPAULDING: It was sad because they worked together, they lived together. It was his best\nfriend, his partner, was gone-- and he was very lonely. I’m sure it was heartbreaking just to go\nto the studio without her. So at that point I would say he was pretty much done at that stage."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[17] "JOHNSON: That really covers many of the questions that we have. You answered one of our\nquestions earlier. We wondered if you thought your father ever considered the movies he made\nwould have a life beyond their immediate purpose that they had at the time. Do you think he\nknew the documentary value of what he was doing?\nSPAULDING: Well, foremost, he was looking for a way to support the family other than the\nstudio. They were not getting the people to come into the studio -- people did not have the\nfinances to do that, so he was looking for a creative way to support the family, and make\nenough money to support us. That was probably the initial reason. But then I think as he\nbecame involved in it, he realized what he was doing. I don’t think he had any idea that it would\nbe to the realm that it has become now. I really don’t think he knew the impact it was going to\nmake, but because he liked being a part of history and a part of everything that was going on\naround him, he wanted to document that. We are very fortunate-- because of that we have\nthese films. I think he did realize somewhat what he was doing, and that’s why he went back to\nthe communities to share them again, to make sure those communities were able to enjoy\nthese. That was probably the first stage of his sharing and passing this on to future\ngenerations. But he had fun too.\nWATERS: You can watch the progress, the development, of his techniques, his way of setting\nup scenes, and the type of things that people responded to. The audience helped in regards to\nhis style and technique as much as anything. Their response to what they were seeing, and to\nhear about how it developed along those lines. They would get more crowds and get more\napplause, and they would write about them in the papers, as it were. Patron saints and\n(indiscernible). And they watched his movies and saw some of the first commercials this\ncountry has ever seen. And you notice that in some of the (indiscernible) you look through\nthere-- (indiscernible). The mechanic would be working on cars, the grocer would be selling\ngroceries, the beauty parlors would have the electric curlers come down like this curling their\nhair, the mailman would be delivering mail. Then, of course there would be certain dairies, the\nhardware store--\nSPAULDING: And didn’t he sell the commercials, using those images to put on the screen?\nWATERS: Yeah, he did. Back in the 30s, that wasn’t unheard of.\nBREADEN: Did he talk to you about when he started getting attention -- Tom Whiteside made\nhis film, and he was on the TV news-- did he talk to you about that much?\nSPAULDING: No, I wasn’t around. I was in Pennsylvania.\nWATERS: (indiscernible) We knew they were starting to get attention. And we saw the movies\nand the end product. But he never never thought about it, didn’t mention it. He didn’t see it as a\nbragging point. He wasn’t that kind of person."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
[18] "SPAULDING: No, he didn’t brag about it. I think he just kind of, felt good about it though. I think\nhe felt honored, but he didn’t make a big deal of it. I don’t think he really knew how much\npublicity he was getting. But it was nice that that happened before he died, and that he saw that\npeople really did appreciate his efforts, and his images. And I think also at that point he realized\nthe impact that was coming. That he was passing along a real heritage there, not just to our\nfamily, but to many families.\nWATERS: He understood and appreciated Duke’s financial thrust in getting and collecting his\nmovies and restoring them. He understood that quite well, and he thought it was an honor that a\nlarge institution like Duke would begin on work like this. He was all in favor of continuing.\nSPAULDING: But he didn’t like being in the limelight. He really didn’t. He was a humble\nperson. This was just kind of fun, to see this happening for him, but he didn’t feel any more\nspecial because of it. Even though he was, and is.\nBREADEN: Have we failed to cover any ground here that you can think of?\nSPAULDING: Well, let me see here. Many of these questions that you had asked my brother, of\ncourse, I wouldn’t have answer to them, because I wasn’t around. Like what life was like when\nhe was gone.\nWATERS: She was just meticulous in detail. And one of the things that showed up, that wasn’t\nrelated to the studio at all, was making clothes for her new daughter. She made many clothes\nthat Mary wore. Little fine embroidered work on some of them, sewing buttons on. I don’t see\nhow she did it, but that was her style. Anything she turned her attention to, that she made, she\nmade perfection out of it. Raising flowers, pollinating the flowers (indiscernible). Fish, same\nway. Raised tropical fish for years. And when it came to making crafts like a pine straw basket -\nremember that?\nSPAULDING: I have that!\nWATERS: Pine straw. She got that pine straw and she made the most beautiful hand purse and\nbasket that you have ever seen. If we took it to a trade show, it would bring quite a few dollars\nin, if someone knew what they were getting. That kind of meticulous detail, got into every phase\nof her life, in every hobby she got into. And she was meticulous in other ways, other avenues,\nactivities. She had her own unique creativity. And it came out in her work in the studio. And it’s\nthe very creativity that came out in the movies. In some ways you could call them a perfect\nmatch.\nSPAULDING: They were. He was just a very creative person, and she was too in different\nways. It was a good marriage in more ways than one.\nWATERS: They set a good example for us."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[19] "JOHNSON: Well, thank you very much. This has been a pleasure, and very interesting.\nSPAULDING: Thank you! It’s been fun to talk about our family, it’s always fun. Like I said, it\nbrings up memories that you didn’t realize were there.\nWATERS: As you go through these pictures, these movies-- it brings back memories you\nthought you had totally forgot about. It triggers them.\n(end of interview)"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
 [1] "textreadr Creed"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
 [2] "The textreadr package aims to be a lightweight tool kit that handles 80% of an analyst’s text reading in needs."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
 [3] "The package handles .docx, .doc, .pdf, .html, .pptx, and .txt."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
 [4] "If you have another format there is likely already another popular R package that specializes in this read in task. For example, got XML, use the xml2 package, authored by Hadley Wickham, Jim Hester, & Jeroen Ooms. Need special handling for .html? Use Hadley Wickham’s rvest package. Got SQL? Oh boy there’s a bunch of great ways to read it into R."
 [5] "R Package"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
 [6] "SQL"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
 [7] "ROBDC"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
 [8] "Microsoft SQL Server"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
 [9] "RMySQL"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
[10] "MySQL"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
[11] "ROracle"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
[12] "Oracle"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
[13] "RJDBC"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
[14] "JDBC"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
 [1] "JRMC2202 Audio  Project"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
 [2] "Interview Transcript"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
 [3] "Interviewer:  Yasmine Hassan"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
 [4] "Narrator:  Ahmad Abd Rabou"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
 [5] "Date:  16/10/2014"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
 [6] "Place:  Narrator’s office"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
 [7] "2001 Department of Political Science"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
 [8] "Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Hall"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
 [9] "The American University in Cairo, New Cairo Campus"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[10] "Cairo, Egypt."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[11] "Prof.:  Professor Kim Fox"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
[12] "Date completed:  20/ 10 /2014"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[13] "16 October 2014"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[14] "Persons Present:             Yasmine Hassan - I"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[15] "Ahmad Abd Rabou - S"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
[16] "Hassan:             Could you please tell me your name, your title, your age, and your place  of ref ,                                      umm, residence?"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
[17] "Abd Rabou:     My name is Ahmad Abd Rabou. I’m assistant professor of comparative politics at"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[18] "both Cairo University and The American University in Cairo. I’m 34 years old. I"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[19] "live in Rehab City in New Cairo Egypt."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
[20] "Hassan:            Professor Abd Rabou, being a current professor of political science in both Cairo"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[21] "University and AUC, can you underline any major differences in the mentality or"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[22] "the political orientations of the students in both?"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
[23] "Abd Rabou:     Sure. First of all, let's look at the socioeconomic st ructure of the students at both"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
[24] "campuses. It's a little bit different . For example, in the American U niversity in"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
[25] "Cairo, usually people, not everybody but I'd say the majority, are upper middle"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[26] "classes. And then, most of them, not all again but most of them, have this kind of ,"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[27] "like ,  societal safe exits and inputs, which means that they feel that after"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[28] "graduation  they can secure jobs somehow, umm.  They--Most of them are coming-"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
[29] "-A gain, the majority of them are coming from liberal schools so to speak; so they"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[30] "share such kind of liberal ideas. And they, again, finally comin g from the upper"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
[31] "middle classes  even if   they still come from country side and, I mean, places that"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[32] "are not Cairo and Alexa ndria and other big Urban places.     For Cairo University, it’s totally different situation. You've people coming  from different  segments of the society; upper middle, middle and lower middle and even poor people. And they are representing different places geographically, especially where schools have no other counterparts like the school I join at Cairo University -  The School of Economics and Political Science . It  has no other c ounterpart in different places; so  nationwide students will be joining there. And students there are coming from more conservative backgrounds compared to AUC. Again, I am just touching upon the  majority;  let's say the average student with exceptions both here and ther e. And they finally -- The y--They  don't feel such kind of safe networks. They are not safely networke d in the society. So  they feel they should do much better, they should exert much more efforts in order to catch much better opportunities after graduation. So this is ( . . . . )."
[33] "Hassan:            So from this point of the differences of social classes, do  you agree  with this"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[34] "claim  that AUC students are kind of detached from the Egyptian reality?"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
[35] "Abd Rabou:     No. I don't--It depends --Li ke my --This is my second year.  Actually, I am starting"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[36] "now my third year at AUC. I would say it's not for everybody, umm. But, still,"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
[37] "you have at least 30 to 40 % of my students are kind of detached from the"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
[38] "Egyptian reality. Some of them has been taught in non Egyptian education. Some"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
[39] "of them even didn't spend any time in Egypt. Most of them--Some of them are"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
[40] "coming from Gulf countries for example. This is one.   But if I compare the"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
[41] "situation before the  revolution  or even the situation when I was a student at Cairo"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
[42] "University attending some courses at AUC, that was back 13-14 years ago, I think the American university in Cairo students are getting much more in touch with the Egyptian reality compared to 15 years ago. This is what I can see from the performance of my students now. They are getting much more closer to the reality. But, compared--I mean comparatively speaking, if we compare them to Cairo students, yes somehow the majority of students here are somehow a little bit far away from ( . . . . )."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
[43] "Hassan:             So, as political science students, does this make them less politically mature than"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
[44] "those of Cairo University?"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
[45] "Abd Rabou:     Less, not mature, they are politically mature but less politically engaged. So they"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[46] "don't feel they have to be engaged in the society, they have to be engaged in"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[47] "politics, which is totally different at Cairo  University . But for maturity, I--I"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[48] "both -- At both campuses, I face same problems. You have people who are totally"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[49] "immature when it comes to basic facts of politics. Given the fact that I am"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
[50] "teaching political science, so finally, at least I expect people with a basic"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[51] "knowledge. But I face same scenarios at Cairo University; so I think it is more of"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[52] "political participation and political engagement more than political awareness or"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
[53] "maturity."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
[54] "Hassan:           Since you are an active politician and writer, do you ever feel that, umm,"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
[55] "expressing your opinions freely or taking sides, umm, in the newspapers , and  your"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
[56] "ow n   publications, and the social media could affect your objectivity as a political"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
[57] "science professor?"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[58] "Abd Rabou:     It does somehow. What I do is--First of all I am not really--I don't--At least, I"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
[59] "don't consider myself a politician. I'm not joining any political party but I'm a"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
[60] "writer. I'm kind of political activist, and of course it does affect my situation. But"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
[61] "the point here is I am trying my best, not 100%, but I’m doing my best to detach"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
[62] "my point of views at classes from point of views I write or I expose to media,"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
[63] "whether written media or seen media, etc. This is one. Second, even when I go to"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
[64] "the media, I try--I do my best to make my opinions kind of objective. So I'm"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
[65] "trying  to play this political analyst rather than a political politician. So if you"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[66] "compare for   example Amr Hamzawy who is my senior colleague; he is politician"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
[67] "simp ly  because he run for parliamentary elections. He was a parliamentary. He"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[68] "was a deputy in the parliament. So, it's a little bit diffe rent scenario. I didn't go"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
[69] "that  far, yet."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
[70] "Hassan:            But you are  characterized  with, somehow a sarcastic way of criticism, especially"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
[71] "on the social media. So, doesn't this affect somehow when you--when you deal"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
[72] "with the  students? Specially  that -- ."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
[73] "Abd Rabou:     So far I didn't get-- So far-- Maybe it does. I don't know. Maybe students are not"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
[74] "telling me this. But Ok , we  have to differentiate two different platforms; when I"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
[75] "write for media, for example Al Tahrir newspaper, Al Shorouk newspaper or"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
[76] "when I go for some talk shows, an d  what I write on my own page on facebook."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
[77] "Yes, my own page on facebook is very sarcastic, is very like--.  I just speak out"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
[78] "my mind as it goes. So this is not--I wouldn't say that this is my identity in the"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
[79] "society in general. It's only for my webpage which is not--I mean, I'm sorry, my"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
[80] "facebook page which is not that much exposed. It 's nothing to be compared, if I"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
[81] "go  to the media or if I write in some other platforms like Al Shorouk or Al"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
[82] "Tahrir. This  is one. Second, I didn't--So far, I didn't  face any single scenario of"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
[83] "students getting  upset or so."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
[84] "Hassan:             Ok. Thank you so much for your  time. And thank you for giving us the"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
[85] "opportunity of doing this interview."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
[86] "Abd Rabou:     Thank you. You are welcome."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
[87] "Hassan:            Thank you."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
 [1] "The textreadr package aims to be a lightweight"                
 [2] "tool kit that handles 80% of an analyst's text"                
 [3] "reading in needs."                                             
 [4] "The package handles .docx, .doc, .pdf, .html, .pptx, and .txt."
 [5] "If you have another format there is likely already"            
 [6] "another popular R package that specializes in this"            
 [7] "read in task.  For example, got XML, use the xml2"             
 [8] "package, authored by Hadley Wickham, Jim Hester, &"            
 [9] "Jeroen Ooms.  Need special handling for .html?  Use"           
[10] "Hadley Wickham's rvest package.  Got SQL?  Oh boy"             
[11] "there's a bunch of great ways to read it into R."              
[12] "| R Package   | SQL                    |"                      
[13] "|-------------|------------------------|"                      
[14] "| ROBDC       | Microsoft SQL Server   |"                      
[15] "| RMySQL      | MySQL                  |"                      
[16] "| ROracle     | Oracle                 |"                      
[17] "| RJDBC       | JDBC                   |"                      
 [1] "Hello World"               "Tyler Rinker"             
 [3] "Slide 1"                   "Really nifty"             
 [5] "Kinda  shifty"             "Not worth fifty"          
 [7] "Wowzers !"                 "There’s a cat sniffing me"
 [9] "I think he likes me"       "Ouch"                     
[11] "He bit me"                 "I think he hates me"      
[13] "Two Lists"                 "One"                      
[15] "Two"                       "Three"                    
[17] "Blue"                      "Green"                    
[19] "Orange"                   
Error in curl::curl_download(url, out, ...) : 
  Could not resolve host:

textreadr documentation built on Oct. 9, 2021, 5:06 p.m.