% !TEX root = ../main.tex
% 附录2
\chapter{外文资料原文}
\label{cha:engorg}
\title{The title of the English paper}
\textbf{Abstract:} As one of the most widely used techniques in operations
research, \emph{ mathematical programming} is defined as a means of maximizing a
quantity known as \emph{bjective function}, subject to a set of constraints
represented by equations and inequalities. Some known subtopics of mathematical
programming are linear programming, nonlinear programming, multiobjective
programming, goal programming, dynamic programming, and multilevel
programming$^{[1]}$.
It is impossible to cover in a single chapter every concept of mathematical
programming. This chapter introduces only the basic concepts and techniques of
mathematical programming such that readers gain an understanding of them
throughout the book$^{[2,3]}$.
\section{Single-Objective Programming}
The general form of single-objective programming (SOP) is written
as follows,
\begin{equation}\tag*{(123)} % 如果附录中的公式不想让它出现在公式索引中，那就请
% 用 \tag*{xxxx}
\left\{\begin{array}{l}
\max \,\,f(x)\\[0.1 cm]
\mbox{subject to:} \\ [0.1 cm]
\qquad g_j(x)\le 0,\quad j=1,2,\cdots,p
\end{array}\right.
\end{equation}
which maximizes a real-valued function $f$ of
$x=(x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n)$ subject to a set of constraints.
\newtheorem{mpdef}{Definition}[chapter]
\begin{mpdef}
In SOP, we call $x$ a decision vector, and
$x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n$ decision variables. The function
$f$ is called the objective function. The set
\begin{equation}\tag*{(456)} % 这里同理，其它不再一一指定。
S=\left\{x\in\Re^n\bigm|g_j(x)\le 0,\,j=1,2,\cdots,p\right\}
\end{equation}
is called the feasible set. An element $x$ in $S$ is called a
feasible solution.
\end{mpdef}
\newtheorem{mpdefop}[mpdef]{Definition}
\begin{mpdefop}
A feasible solution $x^*$ is called the optimal
solution of SOP if and only if
\begin{equation}
f(x^*)\ge f(x)
\end{equation}
for any feasible solution $x$.
\end{mpdefop}
One of the outstanding contributions to mathematical programming was known as
the Kuhn-Tucker conditions\ref{eq:ktc}. In order to introduce them, let us give
some definitions. An inequality constraint $g_j(x)\le 0$ is said to be active at
a point $x^*$ if $g_j(x^*)=0$. A point $x^*$ satisfying $g_j(x^*)\le 0$ is said
to be regular if the gradient vectors $\nabla g_j(x)$ of all active constraints
are linearly independent.
Let $x^*$ be a regular point of the constraints of SOP and assume that all the
functions $f(x)$ and $g_j(x),j=1,2,\cdots,p$ are differentiable. If $x^*$ is a
local optimal solution, then there exist Lagrange multipliers
$\lambda_j,j=1,2,\cdots,p$ such that the following Kuhn-Tucker conditions hold,
\begin{equation}
\label{eq:ktc}
\left\{\begin{array}{l}
\nabla f(x^*)-\sum\limits_{j=1}^p\lambda_j\nabla g_j(x^*)=0\\[0.3cm]
\lambda_jg_j(x^*)=0,\quad j=1,2,\cdots,p\\[0.2cm]
\lambda_j\ge 0,\quad j=1,2,\cdots,p.
\end{array}\right.
\end{equation}
If all the functions $f(x)$ and $g_j(x),j=1,2,\cdots,p$ are convex and
differentiable, and the point $x^*$ satisfies the Kuhn-Tucker conditions
(\ref{eq:ktc}), then it has been proved that the point $x^*$ is a global optimal
solution of SOP.
\subsection{Linear Programming}
\label{sec:lp}
If the functions $f(x),g_j(x),j=1,2,\cdots,p$ are all linear, then SOP is called
a {\em linear programming}.
The feasible set of linear is always convex. A point $x$ is called an extreme
point of convex set $S$ if $x\in S$ and $x$ cannot be expressed as a convex
combination of two points in $S$. It has been shown that the optimal solution to
linear programming corresponds to an extreme point of its feasible set provided
that the feasible set $S$ is bounded. This fact is the basis of the {\em simplex
algorithm} which was developed by Dantzig as a very efficient method for
solving linear programming.
\begin{table}[ht]
\centering
\appendixcaption{Table~1\hskip1em This is an example for manually numbered table, which
would not appear in the list of tables}
\label{tab:badtabular2}
\wuhao
\begin{tabular}[c]{|m{1.5cm}|c|c|c|c|c|c|}\hline
\multicolumn{2}{|c|}{Network Topology} & \# of nodes &
\multicolumn{3}{c|}{\# of clients} & Server \\\hline
GT-ITM & Waxman Transit-Stub & 600 &
\multirow{2}{2em}{2\%}&
\multirow{2}{2em}{10\%}&
\multirow{2}{2em}{50\%}&
\multirow{2}{1.2in}{Max. Connectivity}\\\cline{1-3}
\multicolumn{2}{|c|}{Inet-2.1} & 6000 & & & &\\\hline
& \multicolumn{2}{c|}{ABCDEF} &\multicolumn{4}{c|}{} \\\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
Roughly speaking, the simplex algorithm examines only the extreme points of the
feasible set, rather than all feasible points. At first, the simplex algorithm
selects an extreme point as the initial point. The successive extreme point is
selected so as to improve the objective function value. The procedure is
repeated until no improvement in objective function value can be made. The last
extreme point is the optimal solution.
% 附录算法请用这个新环境
\begin{algorithmen}
\wuhao
\DontPrintSemicolon
\KwData{$G=(X,U)$ such that $G^{tc}$ is an order.}
\KwResult{$G’=(X,V)$ with $V\subseteq U$ such that $G’^{tc}$ is an interval order.}
\caption{\textsc{Fast}SLAM}
\end{algorithmen}
\subsection{Nonlinear Programming}
If at least one of the functions $f(x),g_j(x),j=1,2,\cdots,p$ is nonlinear, then
SOP is called a {\em nonlinear programming}.
A large number of classical optimization methods have been developed to treat
special-structural nonlinear programming based on the mathematical theory
concerned with analyzing the structure of problems.
Now we consider a nonlinear programming which is confronted solely with
maximizing a real-valued function with domain $\Re^n$. Whether derivatives are
available or not, the usual strategy is first to select a point in $\Re^n$ which
is thought to be the most likely place where the maximum exists. If there is no
information available on which to base such a selection, a point is chosen at
random. From this first point an attempt is made to construct a sequence of
points, each of which yields an improved objective function value over its
predecessor. The next point to be added to the sequence is chosen by analyzing
the behavior of the function at the previous points. This construction continues
until some termination criterion is met. Methods based upon this strategy are
called {\em ascent methods}, which can be classified as {\em direct methods},
{\em gradient methods}, and {\em Hessian methods} according to the information
about the behavior of objective function $f$. Direct methods require only that
the function can be evaluated at each point. Gradient methods require the
evaluation of first derivatives of $f$. Hessian methods require the evaluation
of second derivatives. In fact, there is no superior method for all
problems. The efficiency of a method is very much dependent upon the objective
function.
\subsection{Integer Programming}
{\em Integer programming} is a special mathematical programming in which all of
the variables are assumed to be only integer values. When there are not only
integer variables but also conventional continuous variables, we call it {\em
mixed integer programming}. If all the variables are assumed either 0 or 1,
then the problem is termed a {\em zero-one programming}. Although integer
programming can be solved by an {\em exhaustive enumeration} theoretically, it
is impractical to solve realistically sized integer programming problems. The
most successful algorithm so far found to solve integer programming is called
the {\em branch-and-bound enumeration} developed by Balas (1965) and Dakin
(1965). The other technique to integer programming is the {\em cutting plane
method} developed by Gomory (1959).
\hfill\textit{Uncertain Programming\/}\quad(\textsl{BaoDing Liu, 2006.2})
\section*{References}
\noindent{\itshape NOTE: These references are only for demonstration. They are
not real citations in the original text.}
\begin{translationbib}
\item Donald E. Knuth. The \TeX book. Addison-Wesley, 1984. ISBN: 0-201-13448-9
\item Paul W. Abrahams, Karl Berry and Kathryn A. Hargreaves. \TeX\ for the
Impatient. Addison-Wesley, 1990. ISBN: 0-201-51375-7
\item David Salomon. The advanced \TeX book. New York : Springer, 1995. ISBN:0-387-94556-3
\end{translationbib}