Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) Examples

Performs a permutation (randomization) test for difference in location based on a paired sample.

1 2 3 | ```
perm.paired.loc(x, y, parameter, variable = NULL,
alternative = c("two.sided", "less", "greater"),
R = 9999)
``` |

`x` |
a numeric vector of data values representing the first components of the pairs. |

`y` |
a numeric vector of data values representing the second components of the pairs. |

`parameter` |
the location parameter under consideration (e.g., mean, trimmed mean). |

`variable` |
an optional character string that gives the name of the variable under consideration. |

`alternative` |
a character string specifying the alternative hypothesis; must be one of "two.sided" (default), "less", or "greater". |

`R` |
number of replications (default = 9999). |

The null hypothesis is that the distributions of the variable on the two populations are identical—"identical".

The possible alternative hypotheses are:

Two tailed ("two.sided"): The distribution of the variable on the first population has either systematically smaller values or systematically larger values than that of the variable on the second population—"shifted".

Left tailed ("less"): The distribution of the variable on the first population has systematically smaller values than that of the variable on the second population—"shifted.left".

Right tailed ("greater"): The distribution of the variable on the first population has systematically larger values than that of the variable on the second population—"shifted.right".

A list with class "perm.paired.loc" containing the following components:

`Perm.values ` |
the values of the test statistic obtained from the permutations. |

`Header ` |
the main title for the output. |

`Variable ` |
the name of the variable under consideration or NULL. |

`Pop.1 ` |
the first population. |

`Pop.2 ` |
the second population. |

`n ` |
the sample size. |

`Statistic ` |
the test statistic. |

`Observed ` |
the observed value of the test statistic. |

`Null ` |
the null hypothesis; here, always identical. |

`Alternative ` |
the alternative hypothesis. |

`P.value ` |
the P-value or a statement like P < 0.001. |

`p.value ` |
the P-value. |

Neil A. Weiss

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 | ```
# Ages of a sample of 10 heterosexual spouses.
data("spouse.ages")
str(spouse.ages)
attach(spouse.ages)
# Paired-sample permutation test to decide whether there is a difference
# in location for age distributions of married men and married women,
# using the mean as the location parameter. Variable named "Age".
perm.paired.loc(HUSBAND, WIFE, mean, "Age")
# Paired-sample permutation test to decide whether married men have
# systematically greater ages than married women, using the 10% trimmed
# mean as the location parameter.
tr10.mean <- function(x) mean(x, trim = 0.10)
perm.paired.loc(HUSBAND, WIFE, tr10.mean, alternative = "greater")
detach(spouse.ages) # clean up.
``` |

```
'data.frame': 10 obs. of 2 variables:
$ HUSBAND: int 59 21 33 78 70 33 68 32 54 52
$ WIFE : int 53 22 36 74 64 35 67 28 41 44
RESULTS OF PERMUTATION PAIRED LOCATION TEST
BASED ON 9999 REPLICATIONS
SUMMARY Variable Pop.1 Pop.2 n Statistic Observed
STATISTICS Age HUSBAND WIFE 10 diff.mean 3.6
HYPOTHESIS Null Alternative P.value
TEST identical shifted 0.0528
RESULTS OF PERMUTATION PAIRED LOCATION TEST
BASED ON 9999 REPLICATIONS
SUMMARY Pop.1 Pop.2 n Statistic Observed
STATISTICS HUSBAND WIFE 10 diff.tr10.mean 4.125
HYPOTHESIS Null Alternative P.value
TEST identical shifted.right 0.0355
```

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