nucleotideFrequency: Calculate the frequency of oligonucleotides in a DNA or RNA...

Description Usage Arguments Value Author(s) See Also Examples

Description

Given a DNA or RNA sequence (or a set of DNA or RNA sequences), the oligonucleotideFrequency function computes the frequency of all possible oligonucleotides of a given length (called the "width" in this particular context) in a sliding window that is shifted step nucleotides at a time.

The dinucleotideFrequency and trinucleotideFrequency functions are convenient wrappers for calling oligonucleotideFrequency with width=2 and width=3, respectively.

The nucleotideFrequencyAt function computes the frequency of the short sequences formed by extracting the nucleotides found at some fixed positions from each sequence of a set of DNA or RNA sequences.

In this man page we call "DNA input" (or "RNA input") an XString, XStringSet, XStringViews or MaskedXString object of base type DNA (or RNA).

Usage

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oligonucleotideFrequency(x, width, step=1,
                         as.prob=FALSE, as.array=FALSE,
                         fast.moving.side="right", with.labels=TRUE, ...)

## S4 method for signature 'XStringSet'
oligonucleotideFrequency(x, width, step=1,
                         as.prob=FALSE, as.array=FALSE,
                         fast.moving.side="right", with.labels=TRUE,
                         simplify.as="matrix")

dinucleotideFrequency(x, step=1,
                      as.prob=FALSE, as.matrix=FALSE,
                      fast.moving.side="right", with.labels=TRUE, ...)

trinucleotideFrequency(x, step=1,
                       as.prob=FALSE, as.array=FALSE,
                       fast.moving.side="right", with.labels=TRUE, ...)

nucleotideFrequencyAt(x, at,
                      as.prob=FALSE, as.array=TRUE,
                      fast.moving.side="right", with.labels=TRUE, ...)

## Some related functions:
oligonucleotideTransitions(x, left=1, right=1, as.prob=FALSE)

mkAllStrings(alphabet, width, fast.moving.side="right")

Arguments

x

Any DNA or RNA input for the *Frequency and oligonucleotideTransitions functions.

An XStringSet or XStringViews object of base type DNA or RNA for nucleotideFrequencyAt.

width

The number of nucleotides per oligonucleotide for oligonucleotideFrequency.

The number of letters per string for mkAllStrings.

step

How many nucleotides should the window be shifted before counting the next oligonucleotide (i.e. the sliding window step; default 1). If step is smaller than width, oligonucleotides will overlap; if the two arguments are equal, adjacent oligonucleotides will be counted (an efficient way to count codons in an ORF); and if step is larger than width, nucleotides will be sampled step nucleotides apart.

at

An integer vector containing the positions to look at in each element of x.

as.prob

If TRUE then probabilities are reported, otherwise counts (the default).

as.array,as.matrix

Controls the "shape" of the returned object. If TRUE (the default for nucleotideFrequencyAt) then it's a numeric matrix (or array), otherwise it's just a "flat" numeric vector i.e. a vector with no dim attribute (the default for the *Frequency functions).

fast.moving.side

Which side of the strings should move fastest? Note that, when as.array is TRUE, then the supplied value is ignored and the effective value is "left".

with.labels

If TRUE then the returned object is named.

...

Further arguments to be passed to or from other methods.

simplify.as

Together with the as.array and as.matrix arguments, controls the "shape" of the returned object when the input x is an XStringSet or XStringViews object. Supported simplify.as values are "matrix" (the default), "list" and "collapsed". If simplify.as is "matrix", the returned object is a matrix with length(x) rows where the i-th row contains the frequencies for x[[i]]. If simplify.as is "list", the returned object is a list of the same length as length(x) where the i-th element contains the frequencies for x[[i]]. If simplify.as is "collapsed", then the the frequencies are computed for the entire object x as a whole (i.e. frequencies cumulated across all sequences in x).

left, right

The number of nucleotides per oligonucleotide for the rows and columns respectively in the transition matrix created by oligonucleotideTransitions.

alphabet

The alphabet to use to make the strings.

Value

If x is an XString or MaskedXString object, the *Frequency functions return a numeric vector of length 4^width. If as.array (or as.matrix) is TRUE, then this vector is formatted as an array (or matrix). If x is an XStringSet or XStringViews object, the returned object has the shape specified by the simplify.as argument.

Author(s)

H. Pag<c3><a8>s and P. Aboyoun; K. Vlahovicek for the step argument

See Also

alphabetFrequency, alphabet, hasLetterAt, XString-class, XStringSet-class, XStringViews-class, MaskedXString-class, GENETIC_CODE, AMINO_ACID_CODE, reverseComplement, rev

Examples

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## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## A. BASIC *Frequency() EXAMPLES
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
data(yeastSEQCHR1)
yeast1 <- DNAString(yeastSEQCHR1)

dinucleotideFrequency(yeast1)
trinucleotideFrequency(yeast1)
oligonucleotideFrequency(yeast1, 4)
  
## Get the counts of tetranucleotides overlapping by one nucleotide:
oligonucleotideFrequency(yeast1, 4, step=3)

## Get the counts of adjacent tetranucleotides, starting from the first
## nucleotide:
oligonucleotideFrequency(yeast1, 4, step=4)
  
## Subset the sequence to change the starting nucleotide (here we start
## counting from third nucleotide):
yeast2 <- subseq(yeast1, start=3)
oligonucleotideFrequency(yeast2, 4, step=4)
 
## Get the less and most represented 6-mers:
f6 <- oligonucleotideFrequency(yeast1, 6)
f6[f6 == min(f6)]
f6[f6 == max(f6)]

## Get the result as an array:
tri <- trinucleotideFrequency(yeast1, as.array=TRUE)
tri["A", "A", "C"] # == trinucleotideFrequency(yeast1)["AAC"]
tri["T", , ] # frequencies of trinucleotides starting with a "T"

## With input made of multiple sequences:
library(drosophila2probe)
probes <- DNAStringSet(drosophila2probe)
dfmat <- dinucleotideFrequency(probes)  # a big matrix
dinucleotideFrequency(probes, simplify.as="collapsed")
dinucleotideFrequency(probes, simplify.as="collapsed", as.matrix=TRUE)

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## B. OBSERVED DINUCLEOTIDE FREQUENCY VERSUS EXPECTED DINUCLEOTIDE
##    FREQUENCY
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## The expected frequency of dinucleotide "ab" based on the frequencies
## of its individual letters "a" and "b" is:
##    exp_Fab = Fa * Fb / N if the 2 letters are different (e.g. CG)
##    exp_Faa = Fa * (Fa-1) / N if the 2 letters are the same (e.g. TT)
## where Fa and Fb are the frequencies of "a" and "b" (respectively) and
## N the length of the sequence.
  
## Here is a simple function that implements the above formula for a
## DNAString object 'x'. The expected frequencies are returned in a 4x4
## matrix where the rownames and colnames correspond to the 1st and 2nd
## base in the dinucleotide:
expectedDinucleotideFrequency <- function(x)
{
    # Individual base frequencies.
    bf <- alphabetFrequency(x, baseOnly=TRUE)[DNA_BASES]
    (as.matrix(bf) %*% t(bf) - diag(bf)) / length(x)
}

## On Celegans chrI:
library(BSgenome.Celegans.UCSC.ce2)
chrI <- Celegans$chrI
obs_df <- dinucleotideFrequency(chrI, as.matrix=TRUE)
obs_df  # CG has the lowest frequency
exp_df <- expectedDinucleotideFrequency(chrI)
## A sanity check:
stopifnot(as.integer(sum(exp_df)) == sum(obs_df))

## Ratio of observed frequency to expected frequency:
obs_df / exp_df  # TA has the lowest ratio, not CG!

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## C. nucleotideFrequencyAt()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
nucleotideFrequencyAt(probes, 13)
nucleotideFrequencyAt(probes, c(13, 20))
nucleotideFrequencyAt(probes, c(13, 20), as.array=FALSE)

## nucleotideFrequencyAt() can be used to answer questions like: "how
## many probes in the drosophila2 chip have T, G, T, A at position
## 2, 4, 13 and 20, respectively?"
nucleotideFrequencyAt(probes, c(2, 4, 13, 20))["T", "G", "T", "A"]
## or "what's the probability to have an A at position 25 if there is
## one at position 13?"
nf <- nucleotideFrequencyAt(probes, c(13, 25))
sum(nf["A", "A"]) / sum(nf["A", ])
## Probabilities to have other bases at position 25 if there is an A
## at position 13:
sum(nf["A", "C"]) / sum(nf["A", ])  # C
sum(nf["A", "G"]) / sum(nf["A", ])  # G
sum(nf["A", "T"]) / sum(nf["A", ])  # T

## See ?hasLetterAt for another way to get those results.

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## D. oligonucleotideTransitions()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## Get nucleotide transition matrices for yeast1
oligonucleotideTransitions(yeast1)
oligonucleotideTransitions(yeast1, 2, as.prob=TRUE)

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## E. ADVANCED *Frequency() EXAMPLES
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## Note that when dropping the dimensions of the 'tri' array, elements
## in the resulting vector are ordered as if they were obtained with
## 'fast.moving.side="left"':
triL <- trinucleotideFrequency(yeast1, fast.moving.side="left")
all(as.vector(tri) == triL) # TRUE

## Convert the trinucleotide frequency into the amino acid frequency
## based on translation:
tri1 <- trinucleotideFrequency(yeast1)
names(tri1) <- GENETIC_CODE[names(tri1)]
sapply(split(tri1, names(tri1)), sum) # 12512 occurrences of the stop codon

## When the returned vector is very long (e.g. width >= 10), using
## 'with.labels=FALSE' can improve performance significantly.
## Here for example, the observed speed up is between 25x and 500x:
f12 <- oligonucleotideFrequency(yeast1, 12, with.labels=FALSE) # very fast!

## With the use of 'step', trinucleotideFrequency() is a very fast way to 
## calculate the codon usage table in an ORF (or a set of ORFs).
## Taking the same example as in '?codons':
file <- system.file("extdata", "someORF.fa", package="Biostrings")
my_ORFs <- readDNAStringSet(file)
## Strip flanking 1000 nucleotides around each ORF and remove first
## sequence as it contains an intron:
my_ORFs <- DNAStringSet(my_ORFs, start=1001, end=-1001)[-1]
## Codon usage for each ORF:
codon_usage <- trinucleotideFrequency(my_ORFs, step=3)
## Codon usage across all ORFs:
global_codon_usage <- trinucleotideFrequency(my_ORFs, step=3,
                                             simplify.as="collapsed")
stopifnot(all(colSums(codon_usage) == global_codon_usage))  # sanity check

## Some related functions:
dict1 <- mkAllStrings(LETTERS[1:3], 4)
dict2 <- mkAllStrings(LETTERS[1:3], 4, fast.moving.side="left")
stopifnot(identical(reverse(dict1), dict2)) 

Bioconductor/Biostrings documentation built on Feb. 13, 2018, 7:57 a.m.