Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References Examples

A general function to perform Procrustes analysis of two- or three-dimensional landmark data that can include both fixed landmarks and sliding semilandmarks

1 2 3 |

`A` |
Either an object of class geomorphShapes or a 3D array (p x k x n) containing landmark coordinates for a set of specimens. If A is a geomorphShapes object, the curves argument is not needed. |

`curves` |
An optional matrix defining which landmarks should be treated as semilandmarks on boundary
curves, and which landmarks specify the tangent directions for their sliding. This matrix is generated automatically
with |

`surfaces` |
An optional vector defining which landmarks should be treated as semilandmarks on surfaces |

`PrinAxes` |
A logical value indicating whether or not to align the shape data by principal axes |

`max.iter` |
The maximum number of GPA iterations to perform before superimposition is halted. The final number of iterations could be larger than this, if curves or surface semilandmarks are involved. |

`ProcD` |
A logical value indicating whether or not Procrustes distance should be used as the criterion for optimizing the positions of semilandmarks (if not, bending energy is used) |

`Proj` |
A logical value indicating whether or not the Procrustes-aligned specimens should be projected into tangent space |

`print.progress` |
A logical value to indicate whether a progress bar should be printed to the screen. |

The function performs a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) on two-dimensional or three-dimensional
landmark coordinates. The analysis can be performed on fixed landmark points, semilandmarks on
curves, semilandmarks on surfaces, or any combination. If data are provided in the form of a 3D array, all
landmarks and semilandmarks are contained in this object. If this is the only component provided, the function
will treat all points as if they were fixed landmarks. To designate some points as semilandmarks, one uses
the "curves=" or "surfaces=" options (or both). To include semilandmarks on curves, a matrix defining
which landmarks are to be treated as semilandmarks is provided using the "curves=" option. This matrix contains
three columns that specify the semilandmarks and two neighboring landmarks which are used to specify the tangent
direction for sliding. The matrix may be generated using the function `define.sliders`

). Likewise,
to include semilandmarks
on surfaces, one must specify a vector listing which landmarks are to be treated as surface semilandmarks
using the "surfaces=" option. The "ProcD=FALSE" option (the default) will slide the semilandmarks
based on minimizing bending energy, while "ProcD=TRUE" will slide the semilandmarks along their tangent
directions using the Procrustes distance criterion. The Procrustes-aligned specimens may be projected into tangent
space using the "Proj=TRUE" option.
The function also outputs a matrix of pairwise Procrustes Distances, which correspond to Euclidean distances between specimens in tangent space if "Proj=TRUE", or to the geodesic distances in shape space if "Proj=FALSE".
NOTE: Large datasets may exceed the memory limitations of R.

Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA: Gower 1975, Rohlf and Slice 1990) is the primary means by which shape variables are obtained from landmark data (for a general overview of geometric morphometrics see Bookstein 1991, Rohlf and Marcus 1993, Adams et al. 2004, Zelditch et al. 2012, Mitteroecker and Gunz 2009, Adams et al. 2013). GPA translates all specimens to the origin, scales them to unit-centroid size, and optimally rotates them (using a least-squares criterion) until the coordinates of corresponding points align as closely as possible. The resulting aligned Procrustes coordinates represent the shape of each specimen, and are found in a curved space related to Kendall's shape space (Kendall 1984). Typically, these are projected into a linear tangent space yielding Kendall's tangent space coordinates (i.e., Procrustes shape variables), which are used for subsequent multivariate analyses (Dryden and Mardia 1993, Rohlf 1999). Additionally, any semilandmarks on curves and surfaces are slid along their tangent directions or tangent planes during the superimposition (see Bookstein 1997; Gunz et al. 2005). Presently, two implementations are possible: 1) the locations of semilandmarks can be optimized by minimizing the bending energy between the reference and target specimen (Bookstein 1997), or by minimizing the Procrustes distance between the two (Rohlf 2010). Note that specimens are NOT automatically reflected to improve the GPA-alignment.

The generic functions, `print`

, `summary`

, and `plot`

all work with `gpagen`

.
The generic function, `plot`

, calls `plotAllSpecimens`

.

Compared to older versions of geomorph, users might notice subtle differences in Procrustes shape variables when using semilandmarks (curves or surfaces). This difference is a result of using recursive updates of the consensus configuration with the sliding algorithms (minimized bending energy or Procrustes distances). (Previous versions used a single consensus through the sliding algorithms.) Shape differences using the recursive updates of the consensus configuration should be highly correlated with shape differences using a single consensus during the sliding algorithm, but rotational "flutter" can be expected. This should have no qualitative effect on inferential analyses using Procrustes residuals.

An object of class gpagen returns a list with the following components:

`coords` |
A (p x k x n) array of Procrustes shape variables, where p is the number of landmark points, k is the number of landmark dimensions (2 or 3), and n is the number of specimens. The third dimension of this array contains names for each specimen if specified in the original input array. |

`Csize` |
A vector of centroid sizes for each specimen, containing the names for each specimen if specified in the original input array. |

`iter` |
The number of GPA iterations until convergence was found (or GPA halted). |

`points.VCV` |
Variance-covariance matrix among Procrustes shape variables. |

`points.var` |
Variances of landmark points. |

`consensus` |
The consensus (mean) configuration. |

`procD` |
Procrustes distance matrix for all specimens (see details). Note that for large data sets, R might return a memory allocation error, in which case the error will be suppressed and this component will be NULL. For such cases, users can augment memory allocation and create distances with the dist function, independent from gpagen, using the coords or data output. |

`p` |
Number of landmarks. |

`k` |
Number of landmark dimensions. |

`nsliders` |
Number of semilandmarks along curves. |

`nsurf` |
Number of semilandmarks as surface points. |

`data` |
Data frame with an n x (pk) matrix of Procrustes shape variables and centroid size. |

`Q` |
Final convergence criterion value. |

`slide.method` |
Method used to slide semilandmarks. |

`call` |
The match call. |

Dean Adams and Michael Collyer

Adams, D. C., F. J. Rohlf, and D. E. Slice. 2004. Geometric morphometrics: ten years of progress following the 'revolution'. It. J. Zool. 71:5-16.

Adams, D. C., F. J. Rohlf, and D. E. Slice. 2013. A field comes of age: Geometric morphometrics in the 21st century. Hystrix.24:7-14.

Bookstein, F. L. 1991. Morphometric tools for landmark data: Geometry and Biology. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.

Bookstein, F. L. 1997. Landmark methods for forms without landmarks: morphometrics of group differences in outline shape. 1:225-243.

Dryden, I. L., and K. V. Mardia. 1993. Multivariate shape analysis. Sankhya 55:460-480.

Gower, J. C. 1975. Generalized Procrustes analysis. Psychometrika 40:33-51.

Gunz, P., P. Mitteroecker, and F. L. Bookstein. 2005. semilandmarks in three dimensions. Pp. 73-98 in D. E. Slice, ed. Modern morphometrics in physical anthropology. Klewer Academic/Plenum, New York.

Kendall, D. G. 1984. Shape-manifolds, Procrustean metrics and complex projective spaces. Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 16:81-121.

Mitteroecker, P., and P. Gunz. 2009. Advances in geometric morphometrics. Evol. Biol. 36:235-247.

Rohlf, F. J., and D. E. Slice. 1990. Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Syst. Zool. 39:40-59.

Rohlf, F. J., and L. F. Marcus. 1993. A revolution in morphometrics. Trends Ecol. Evol. 8:129-132.

Rohlf, F. J. 1999. Shape statistics: Procrustes superimpositions and tangent spaces. Journal of Classification 16:197-223.

Rohlf, F. J. 2010. tpsRelw: Relative warps analysis. Version 1.49. Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY.

Zelditch, M. L., D. L. Swiderski, H. D. Sheets, and W. L. Fink. 2012. Geometric morphometrics for biologists: a primer. 2nd edition. Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam.

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# Example 1: fixed points only
data(plethodon)
Y.gpa <- gpagen(plethodon$land,PrinAxes=FALSE)
summary(Y.gpa)
plot(Y.gpa)
# Example 2: points and semilandmarks on curves
data(hummingbirds)
###Slider matrix
hummingbirds$curvepts
# Using bending energy for sliding
Y.gpa <- gpagen(hummingbirds$land,curves=hummingbirds$curvepts,ProcD=FALSE)
summary(Y.gpa)
plot(Y.gpa)
# Using Procrustes Distance for sliding
Y.gpa <- gpagen(hummingbirds$land,curves=hummingbirds$curvepts,ProcD=TRUE)
summary(Y.gpa)
plot(Y.gpa)
# Example 3: points, curves and surfaces
data(scallops)
# Using Procrustes Distance for sliding
Y.gpa <- gpagen(A=scallops$coorddata, curves=scallops$curvslide, surfaces=scallops$surfslide)
# NOTE can summarize as: summary(Y.gpa)
# NOTE can plot as: plot(Y.gpa)
``` |

geomorphR/geomorph documentation built on June 5, 2019, 11:30 a.m.

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