Description Usage Arguments Details Value Side Effects Author(s) See Also Examples
A utility function Cbind
returns the first argument as a vector and
combines all other arguments into a matrix stored as an attribute called
"other"
. The arguments can be named (e.g.,
Cbind(pressure=y,ylow,yhigh)
) or a label
attribute may be preattached
to the first argument. In either case, the name or label of the first
argument is stored as an attribute "label"
of the object returned by
Cbind
. Storing other vectors as a matrix attribute facilitates plotting
error bars, etc., as trellis
really wants the x and yvariables to be
vectors, not matrices. If a single argument is given to Cbind
and that
argument is a matrix with column dimnames, the first column is taken as the
main vector and remaining columns are taken as "other"
. A subscript
method for Cbind
objects subscripts the other
matrix along
with the main y
vector.
The xYplot
function is a substitute for xyplot
that allows for
simulated multicolumn y
. It uses by default the panel.xYplot
and
prepanel.xYplot
functions to do the actual work. The method
argument
passed to panel.xYplot
from xYplot
allows you to make error bars, the
upperonly or loweronly portions of error bars, alternating loweronly and
upperonly bars, bands, or filled bands. panel.xYplot
decides how to
alternate upper and lower bars according to whether the median y
value of
the current main data line is above the median y
for all groups
of
lines or not. If the median is above the overall median, only the upper
bar is drawn. For bands
(but not 'filled bands'), any number of other
columns of y
will be drawn as lines having the same thickness, color, and
type as the main data line. If plotting bars, bands, or filled bands and
only one additional column is specified for the response variable, that
column is taken as the half width of a precision interval for y
, and the
lower and upper values are computed automatically as y
plus or minus the
value of the additional column variable.
When a groups
variable is present, panel.xYplot
will create a function
in frame 0 (.GlobalEnv
in R) called Key
that when
invoked will draw a key describing the
groups
labels, point symbols, and colors. By default, the key is outside
the graph. For SPlus, if Key(locator(1))
is specified, the key will appear so that
its upper left corner is at the coordinates of the mouse click. For
R/Lattice the first two arguments of Key
(x
and y
) are fractions
of the page, measured from the lower left corner, and the default
placement is at x=0.05, y=0.95
. For R, an optional argument
to sKey
, other
, may contain a list of arguments to pass to draw.key
(see
xyplot
for a list of possible arguments, under
the key
option).
When method="quantile"
is specified, xYplot
automatically groups the
x
variable into intervals containing a target of nx
observations each,
and within each x
group computes three quantiles of y
and plots these
as three lines. The mean x
within each x
group is taken as the
x
coordinate. This will make a useful empirical display for large
datasets in which scatterdiagrams are too busy to see patterns of central
tendency and variability. You can also specify a general function of a
data vector that returns a matrix of statistics for the method
argument.
Arguments can be passed to that function via a list methodArgs
. The
statistic in the first column should be the measure of central tendency.
Examples of useful method
functions are those listed under the help file
for summary.formula
such as smean.cl.normal
.
xYplot
can also produce bubble plots. This is done when
size
is specified to xYplot
. When size
is used, a
function sKey
is generated for drawing a key to the character
sizes. See the bubble plot example. size
can also specify a
vector where the first character of each observation is used as the
plotting symbol, if rangeCex
is set to a single cex
value. An optional argument to sKey
, other
, may contain
a list of arguments to pass to draw.key
(see
xyplot
for a list of possible arguments, under
the key
option). See the bubble plot example.
Dotplot
is a substitute for dotplot
allowing for a matrix xvariable,
automatic superpositioning when groups
is present, and creation of a
Key
function. When the xvariable (created by Cbind
to simulate a
matrix) contains a total of 3 columns, the first column specifies where the
dot is positioned, and the last 2 columns specify starting and ending
points for intervals. The intervals are shown using line type, width, and
color from the trellis plot.line
list. By default, you will usually see a
darker line segment for the low and high values, with the dotted reference
line elsewhere. A good choice of the pch
argument for such plots is 3
(plus sign) if you want to emphasize the interval more than the point
estimate. When the xvariable contains a total of 5 columns, the 2nd and
5th columns are treated as the 2nd and 3rd are treated above, and the 3rd
and 4th columns define an inner line segment that will have twice the
thickness of the outer segments. In addition, tick marks separate the outer
and inner segments. This type of display (an example of which appeared in
The Elements of Graphing Data by Cleveland) is very suitable for
displaying two confidence levels (e.g., 0.9 and 0.99) or the 0.05, 0.25,
0.75, 0.95 sample quantiles, for example. For this display, the central
point displays well with a default circle symbol.
setTrellis
sets nice defaults for Trellis graphics, assuming that the
graphics device has already been opened if using postscript, etc. By
default, it sets panel strips to blank and reference dot lines to thickness
1 instead of the Trellis default of 2.
numericScale
is a utility function that facilitates using
xYplot
to
plot variables that are not considered to be numeric but which can readily
be converted to numeric using as.numeric()
. numericScale
by default will keep the name of the input variable as a label
attribute for the new numeric variable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  Cbind(...)
xYplot(formula, data = sys.frame(sys.parent()), groups,
subset, xlab=NULL, ylab=NULL, ylim=NULL,
panel=panel.xYplot, prepanel=prepanel.xYplot, scales=NULL,
minor.ticks=NULL, sub=NULL, ...)
panel.xYplot(x, y, subscripts, groups=NULL,
type=if(is.function(method)  method=='quantiles')
'b' else 'p',
method=c("bars", "bands", "upper bars", "lower bars",
"alt bars", "quantiles", "filled bands"),
methodArgs=NULL, label.curves=TRUE, abline,
probs=c(.5,.25,.75), nx=NULL,
cap=0.015, lty.bar=1,
lwd=plot.line$lwd, lty=plot.line$lty, pch=plot.symbol$pch,
cex=plot.symbol$cex, font=plot.symbol$font, col=NULL,
lwd.bands=NULL, lty.bands=NULL, col.bands=NULL,
minor.ticks=NULL, col.fill=NULL,
size=NULL, rangeCex=c(.5,3), ...)
prepanel.xYplot(x, y, ...)
Dotplot(formula, data = sys.frame(sys.parent()), groups, subset,
xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL, ylim = NULL,
panel=panel.Dotplot, prepanel=prepanel.Dotplot,
scales=NULL, xscale=NULL, ...)
prepanel.Dotplot(x, y, ...)
panel.Dotplot(x, y, groups = NULL,
pch = dot.symbol$pch,
col = dot.symbol$col, cex = dot.symbol$cex,
font = dot.symbol$font, abline, ...)
setTrellis(strip.blank=TRUE, lty.dot.line=2, lwd.dot.line=1)
numericScale(x, label=NULL, ...)

... 
for Also can be other arguments to pass to 
formula 
a 
x 

y 
a vector, or an object created by 
data,subset,ylim,subscripts,groups,type,scales,panel,prepanel,xlab,ylab 
see 
xscale 
allows one to use the default 
method 
defaults to 
methodArgs 
a list containing optional arguments to be passed to the function specified
in 
label.curves 
set to 
abline 
a list of arguments to pass to 
probs 
a vector of three quantiles with the quantile corresponding to the central
line listed first. By default 
nx 
number of target observations for each 
cap 
the halfwidth of horizontal end pieces for error bars, as a fraction of
the length of the 
lty.bar 
line type for bars 
lwd, lty, pch, cex, font, col 
see 
lty.bands, lwd.bands, col.bands 
used to allow 
minor.ticks 
a list with elements 
sub 
an optional subtitle 
col.fill 
used to override default colors used for the bands in method='filled
bands'. This is a vector when 
size 
a vector the same length as 
rangeCex 
a vector of two values specifying the range in character sizes to use
for the 
strip.blank 
set to 
lty.dot.line 
line type for dot plot reference lines (default = 1 for dotted; use 2 for dotted) 
lwd.dot.line 
line thickness for reference lines for dot plots (default = 1) 
label 
a scalar character string to be used as a variable label after

Unlike xyplot
, xYplot
senses the presence of a groups
variable and
automatically invokes panel.superpose
instead of panel.xyplot
. The same
is true for Dotplot
vs. dotplot
.
Cbind
returns a matrix with attributes. Other functions return standard
trellis
results.
plots, and panel.xYplot
may create temporary Key
and
sKey
functions in the session frame.
Frank Harrell
Department of Biostatistics
Vanderbilt University
[email protected]
Madeline Bauer
Department of Infectious Diseases
University of Southern California School of Medicine
[email protected]
xyplot
, panel.xyplot
, summarize
, label
, labcurve
,
errbar
, dotplot
,
reShape
, cut2
, panel.abline
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213  # Plot 6 smooth functions. Superpose 3, panel 2.
# Label curves with p=1,2,3 where most separated
d < expand.grid(x=seq(0,2*pi,length=150), p=1:3, shift=c(0,pi))
xYplot(sin(x+shift)^p ~ x  shift, groups=p, data=d, type='l')
# Use a key instead, use 3 line widths instead of 3 colors
# Put key in most empty portion of each panel
xYplot(sin(x+shift)^p ~ x  shift, groups=p, data=d,
type='l', keys='lines', lwd=1:3, col=1)
# Instead of implicitly using labcurve(), put a
# single key outside of panels at lower left corner
xYplot(sin(x+shift)^p ~ x  shift, groups=p, data=d,
type='l', label.curves=FALSE, lwd=1:3, col=1, lty=1:3)
Key()
# Bubble plots
x < y < 1:8
x[2] < NA
units(x) < 'cm^2'
z < 101:108
p < factor(rep(c('a','b'),4))
g < c(rep(1,7),2)
data.frame(p, x, y, z, g)
xYplot(y ~ x  p, groups=g, size=z)
Key(other=list(title='g', cex.title=1.2)) # draw key for colors
sKey(.2,.85,other=list(title='Z Values', cex.title=1.2))
# draw key for character sizes
# Show the median and quartiles of height given age, stratified
# by sex and race. Draws 2 sets (male, female) of 3 lines per panel.
# xYplot(height ~ age  race, groups=sex, method='quantiles')
# Examples of plotting raw data
dfr < expand.grid(month=1:12, continent=c('Europe','USA'),
sex=c('female','male'))
set.seed(1)
dfr < upData(dfr,
y=month/10 + 1*(sex=='female') + 2*(continent=='Europe') +
runif(48,.15,.15),
lower=y  runif(48,.05,.15),
upper=y + runif(48,.05,.15))
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ month,subset=sex=='male' & continent=='USA',
data=dfr)
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ monthcontinent, subset=sex=='male',data=dfr)
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ monthcontinent, groups=sex, data=dfr); Key()
# add ,label.curves=FALSE to suppress use of labcurve to label curves where
# farthest apart
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ month,groups=sex,
subset=continent=='Europe', data=dfr)
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ month,groups=sex, type='b',
subset=continent=='Europe', keys='lines',
data=dfr)
# keys='lines' causes labcurve to draw a legend where the panel is most empty
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ month,groups=sex, type='b', data=dfr,
subset=continent=='Europe',method='bands')
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ month,groups=sex, type='b', data=dfr,
subset=continent=='Europe',method='upper')
label(dfr$y) < 'Quality of Life Score'
# label is in Hmisc library = attr(y,'label') < 'Quality\dots'; will be
# yaxis label
# can also specify Cbind('Quality of Life Score'=y,lower,upper)
xYplot(Cbind(y,lower,upper) ~ month, groups=sex,
subset=continent=='Europe', method='alt bars',
offset=unit(.1,'inches'), type='b', data=dfr)
# offset passed to labcurve to label .4 y units away from curve
# for R (using grid/lattice), offset is specified using the grid
# unit function, e.g., offset=unit(.4,'native') or
# offset=unit(.1,'inches') or unit(.05,'npc')
# The following example uses the summarize function in Hmisc to
# compute the median and outer quartiles. The outer quartiles are
# displayed using "error bars"
set.seed(111)
dfr < expand.grid(month=1:12, year=c(1997,1998), reps=1:100)
month < dfr$month; year < dfr$year
y < abs(month6.5) + 2*runif(length(month)) + year1997
s < summarize(y, llist(month,year), smedian.hilow, conf.int=.5)
xYplot(Cbind(y,Lower,Upper) ~ month, groups=year, data=s,
keys='lines', method='alt', type='b')
# Can also do:
s < summarize(y, llist(month,year), quantile, probs=c(.5,.25,.75),
stat.name=c('y','Q1','Q3'))
xYplot(Cbind(y, Q1, Q3) ~ month, groups=year, data=s,
type='b', keys='lines')
# Or:
xYplot(y ~ month, groups=year, keys='lines', nx=FALSE, method='quantile',
type='b')
# nx=FALSE means to treat month as a discrete variable
# To display means and bootstrapped nonparametric confidence intervals
# use:
s < summarize(y, llist(month,year), smean.cl.boot)
s
xYplot(Cbind(y, Lower, Upper) ~ month  year, data=s, type='b')
# Can also use Y < cbind(y, Lower, Upper); xYplot(Cbind(Y) ~ ...)
# Or:
xYplot(y ~ month  year, nx=FALSE, method=smean.cl.boot, type='b')
# This example uses the summarize function in Hmisc to
# compute the median and outer quartiles. The outer quartiles are
# displayed using "filled bands"
s < summarize(y, llist(month,year), smedian.hilow, conf.int=.5)
# filled bands: default fill = pastel colors matching solid colors
# in superpose.line (this works differently in R)
xYplot ( Cbind ( y, Lower, Upper ) ~ month, groups=year,
method="filled bands" , data=s, type="l")
# note colors based on levels of selected subgroups, not first two colors
xYplot ( Cbind ( y, Lower, Upper ) ~ month, groups=year,
method="filled bands" , data=s, type="l",
subset=(year == 1998  year == 2000), label.curves=FALSE )
# filled bands using black lines with selected solid colors for fill
xYplot ( Cbind ( y, Lower, Upper ) ~ month, groups=year,
method="filled bands" , data=s, label.curves=FALSE,
type="l", col=1, col.fill = 2:3)
Key(.5,.8,col = 2:3) #use fill colors in key
# A good way to check for stable variance of residuals from ols
# xYplot(resid(fit) ~ fitted(fit), method=smean.sdl)
# smean.sdl is defined with summary.formula in Hmisc
# Plot y vs. a special variable x
# xYplot(y ~ numericScale(x, label='Label for X')  country)
# For this example could omit label= and specify
# y ~ numericScale(x)  country, xlab='Label for X'
# Here is an example of using xYplot with several options
# to change various Trellis parameters,
# xYplot(y ~ x  z, groups=v, pch=c('1','2','3'),
# layout=c(3,1), # 3 panels side by side
# ylab='Y Label', xlab='X Label',
# main=list('Main Title', cex=1.5),
# par.strip.text=list(cex=1.2),
# strip=function(\dots) strip.default(\dots, style=1),
# scales=list(alternating=FALSE))
#
# Dotplot examples
#
s < summarize(y, llist(month,year), smedian.hilow, conf.int=.5)
setTrellis() # blank conditioning panel backgrounds
Dotplot(month ~ Cbind(y, Lower, Upper)  year, data=s)
# or Cbind(\dots), groups=year, data=s
# Display a 5number (5quantile) summary (2 intervals, dot=median)
# Note that summarize produces a matrix for y, and Cbind(y) trusts the
# first column to be the point estimate (here the median)
s < summarize(y, llist(month,year), quantile,
probs=c(.5,.05,.25,.75,.95), type='matrix')
Dotplot(month ~ Cbind(y)  year, data=s)
# Use factor(year) to make actual years appear in conditioning title strips
# Plot proportions and their Wilson confidence limits
set.seed(3)
d < expand.grid(continent=c('USA','Europe'), year=1999:2001,
reps=1:100)
# Generate binary events from a population probability of 0.2
# of the event, same for all years and continents
d$y < ifelse(runif(6*100) <= .2, 1, 0)
s < with(d,
summarize(y, llist(continent,year),
function(y) {
n < sum(!is.na(y))
s < sum(y, na.rm=TRUE)
binconf(s, n)
}, type='matrix')
)
Dotplot(year ~ Cbind(y)  continent, data=s, ylab='Year',
xlab='Probability')
# Dotplot(z ~ x  g1*g2)
# 2way conditioning
# Dotplot(z ~ x  g1, groups=g2); Key()
# Key defines symbols for g2
# If the data are organized so that the mean, lower, and upper
# confidence limits are in separate records, the Hmisc reShape
# function is useful for assembling these 3 values as 3 variables
# a single observation, e.g., assuming type has values such as
# c('Mean','Lower','Upper'):
# a < reShape(y, id=month, colvar=type)
# This will make a matrix with 3 columns named Mean Lower Upper
# and with 1/3 as many rows as the original data

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