X 
Input data. Can be a data.frame , matrix ,
dist object or sparseMatrix .
Matrix and data frames should contain one observation per row. Data frames
will have any nonnumeric columns removed, although factor columns will be
used if explicitly included via metric (see the help for
metric for details). A sparse matrix is interpreted as a distance
matrix, and is assumed to be symmetric, so you can also pass in an
explicitly upper or lower triangular sparse matrix to save storage. There
must be at least n_neighbors nonzero distances for each row. Both
implicit and explicit zero entries are ignored. Set zero distances you want
to keep to an arbitrarily small nonzero value (e.g. 1e10 ).
X can also be NULL if precomputed nearest neighbor data is
passed to nn_method , and init is not "spca" or
"pca" .

n_neighbors 
The size of local neighborhood (in terms of number of
neighboring sample points) used for manifold approximation. Larger values
result in more global views of the manifold, while smaller values result in
more local data being preserved. In general values should be in the range
2 to 100 .

n_components 
The dimension of the space to embed into. This defaults
to 2 to provide easy visualization, but can reasonably be set to any
integer value in the range 2 to 100 .

metric 
Type of distance metric to use to find nearest neighbors. One
of:

"euclidean" (the default)

"cosine"

"manhattan"

"hamming"

"correlation" (a distance based on the Pearson correlation)

"categorical" (see below)
Only applies if nn_method = "annoy" (for nn_method = "fnn" , the
distance metric is always "euclidean").
If X is a data frame or matrix, then multiple metrics can be
specified, by passing a list to this argument, where the name of each item in
the list is one of the metric names above. The value of each list item should
be a vector giving the names or integer ids of the columns to be included in
a calculation, e.g. metric = list(euclidean = 1:4, manhattan = 5:10) .
Each metric calculation results in a separate fuzzy simplicial set, which are
intersected together to produce the final set. Metric names can be repeated.
Because nonnumeric columns are removed from the data frame, it is safer to
use column names than integer ids.
Factor columns can also be used by specifying the metric name
"categorical" . Factor columns are treated different from numeric
columns and although multiple factor columns can be specified in a vector,
each factor column specified is processed individually. If you specify
a nonfactor column, it will be coerced to a factor.
For a given data block, you may override the pca and pca_center
arguments for that block, by providing a list with one unnamed item
containing the column names or ids, and then any of the pca or
pca_center overrides as named items, e.g. metric =
list(euclidean = 1:4, manhattan = list(5:10, pca_center = FALSE)) . This
exists to allow mixed binary and realvalued data to be included and to have
PCA applied to both, but with centering applied only to the realvalued data
(it is typical not to apply centering to binary data before PCA is applied).

n_epochs 
Number of epochs to use during the optimization of the
embedded coordinates. By default, this value is set to 500 for
datasets containing 10,000 vertices or less, and 200 otherwise.
If n_epochs = 0 , then coordinates determined by "init" will
be returned.

learning_rate 
Initial learning rate used in optimization of the
coordinates.

scale 
Scaling to apply to X if it is a data frame or matrix:
"none" or FALSE or NULL No scaling.
"Z" or "scale" or TRUE Scale each column to
zero mean and variance 1.
"maxabs" Center each column to mean 0, then divide each
element by the maximum absolute value over the entire matrix.
"range" Range scale the entire matrix, so the smallest
element is 0 and the largest is 1.
"colrange" Scale each column in the range (0,1).
For tUMAP, the default is "none" .

init 
Type of initialization for the coordinates. Options are:

"spectral" Spectral embedding using the normalized Laplacian
of the fuzzy 1skeleton, with Gaussian noise added.

"normlaplacian" . Spectral embedding using the normalized
Laplacian of the fuzzy 1skeleton, without noise.

"random" . Coordinates assigned using a uniform random
distribution between 10 and 10.

"lvrandom" . Coordinates assigned using a Gaussian
distribution with standard deviation 1e4, as used in LargeVis
(Tang et al., 2016) and tSNE.

"laplacian" . Spectral embedding using the Laplacian Eigenmap
(Belkin and Niyogi, 2002).

"pca" . The first two principal components from PCA of
X if X is a data frame, and from a 2dimensional classical
MDS if X is of class "dist" .

"spca" . Like "pca" , but each dimension is then scaled
so the standard deviation is 1e4, to give a distribution similar to that
used in tSNE. This is an alias for init = "pca", init_sdev =
1e4 .

"agspectral" An "approximate global" modification of
"spectral" which all edges in the graph to a value of 1, and then
sets a random number of edges (negative_sample_rate edges per
vertex) to 0.1, to approximate the effect of nonlocal affinities.
A matrix of initial coordinates.
For spectral initializations, ("spectral" , "normlaplacian" ,
"laplacian" , "agspectral" ), if more than one connected
component is identified, no spectral initialization is attempted. Instead
a PCAbased initialization is attempted. If verbose = TRUE the
number of connected components are logged to the console. The existence of
multiple connected components implies that a global view of the data cannot
be attained with this initialization. Increasing the value of
n_neighbors may help.

init_sdev 
If nonNULL , scales each dimension of the initialized
coordinates (including any usersupplied matrix) to this standard
deviation. By default no scaling is carried out, except when init =
"spca" , in which case the value is 0.0001 . Scaling the input may
help if the unscaled versions result in initial coordinates with large
interpoint distances or outliers. This usually results in small gradients
during optimization and very little progress being made to the layout.
Shrinking the initial embedding by rescaling can help under these
circumstances. Scaling the result of init = "pca" is usually
recommended and init = "spca" as an alias for init = "pca",
init_sdev = 1e4 but for the spectral initializations the scaled versions
usually aren't necessary unless you are using a large value of
n_neighbors (e.g. n_neighbors = 150 or higher). For
compatibility with recent versions of the Python UMAP package, if you are
using init = "spectral" , then you should also set
init_sdev = "range" , which will range scale each of the columns
containing the initial data between 010. This is not set by default to
maintain backwards compatibility with previous versions of uwot.

set_op_mix_ratio 
Interpolate between (fuzzy) union and intersection as
the set operation used to combine local fuzzy simplicial sets to obtain a
global fuzzy simplicial sets. Both fuzzy set operations use the product
tnorm. The value of this parameter should be between 0.0 and
1.0 ; a value of 1.0 will use a pure fuzzy union, while
0.0 will use a pure fuzzy intersection.

local_connectivity 
The local connectivity required – i.e. the number
of nearest neighbors that should be assumed to be connected at a local
level. The higher this value the more connected the manifold becomes
locally. In practice this should be not more than the local intrinsic
dimension of the manifold.

bandwidth 
The effective bandwidth of the kernel if we view the
algorithm as similar to Laplacian Eigenmaps. Larger values induce more
connectivity and a more global view of the data, smaller values concentrate
more locally.

repulsion_strength 
Weighting applied to negative samples in low
dimensional embedding optimization. Values higher than one will result in
greater weight being given to negative samples.

negative_sample_rate 
The number of negative edge/1simplex samples to
use per positive edge/1simplex sample in optimizing the low dimensional
embedding.

nn_method 
Method for finding nearest neighbors. Options are:
By default, if X has less than 4,096 vertices, the exact nearest
neighbors are found. Otherwise, approximate nearest neighbors are used.
You may also pass precalculated nearest neighbor data to this argument. It
must be one of two formats, either a list consisting of two elements:

"idx" . A n_vertices x n_neighbors matrix
containing the integer indexes of the nearest neighbors in X . Each
vertex is considered to be its own nearest neighbor, i.e.
idx[, 1] == 1:n_vertices .

"dist" . A n_vertices x n_neighbors matrix
containing the distances of the nearest neighbors.
or a sparse distance matrix of type dgCMatrix , with dimensions
n_vertices x n_vertices . Distances should be arranged by column,
i.e. a nonzero entry in row j of the i th column indicates
that the j th observation in X is a nearest neighbor of the
i th observation with the distance given by the value of that
element.
The n_neighbors parameter is ignored when using precomputed
nearest neighbor data. If using the sparse distance matrix input, each
column can contain a different number of neighbors.

n_trees 
Number of trees to build when constructing the nearest
neighbor index. The more trees specified, the larger the index, but the
better the results. With search_k , determines the accuracy of the
Annoy nearest neighbor search. Only used if the nn_method is
"annoy" . Sensible values are between 10 to 100 .

search_k 
Number of nodes to search during the neighbor retrieval. The
larger k, the more the accurate results, but the longer the search takes.
With n_trees , determines the accuracy of the Annoy nearest neighbor
search. Only used if the nn_method is "annoy" .

n_threads 
Number of threads to use (except during stochastic gradient
descent). Default is half the number of concurrent threads supported by the
system. For nearest neighbor search, only applies if
nn_method = "annoy" . If n_threads > 1 , then the Annoy index
will be temporarily written to disk in the location determined by
tempfile .

n_sgd_threads 
Number of threads to use during stochastic gradient
descent. If set to > 1, then be aware that if batch = FALSE , results
will not be reproducible, even if set.seed is called with a
fixed seed before running. Set to "auto" to use the same value as
n_threads .

grain_size 
The minimum amount of work to do on each thread. If this
value is set high enough, then less than n_threads or
n_sgd_threads will be used for processing, which might give a
performance improvement if the overhead of thread management and context
switching was outweighing the improvement due to concurrent processing.
This should be left at default (1 ) and work will be spread evenly
over all the threads specified.

y 
Optional target data for supervised dimension reduction. Can be a
vector, matrix or data frame. Use the target_metric parameter to
specify the metrics to use, using the same syntax as metric . Usually
either a single numeric or factor column is used, but more complex formats
are possible. The following types are allowed:
Factor columns with the same length as X . NA is
allowed for any observation with an unknown level, in which case
UMAP operates as a form of semisupervised learning. Each column is
treated separately.
Numeric data. NA is not allowed in this case. Use the
parameter target_n_neighbors to set the number of neighbors used
with y . If unset, n_neighbors is used. Unlike factors,
numeric columns are grouped into one block unless target_metric
specifies otherwise. For example, if you wish columns a and
b to be treated separately, specify
target_metric = list(euclidean = "a", euclidean = "b") . Otherwise,
the data will be effectively treated as a matrix with two columns.
Nearest neighbor data, consisting of a list of two matrices,
idx and dist . These represent the precalculated nearest
neighbor indices and distances, respectively. This
is the same format as that expected for precalculated data in
nn_method . This format assumes that the underlying data was a
numeric vector. Any usersupplied value of the target_n_neighbors
parameter is ignored in this case, because the the number of columns in
the matrices is used for the value. Multiple nearest neighbor data using
different metrics can be supplied by passing a list of these lists.
Unlike X , all factor columns included in y are automatically
used.

target_n_neighbors 
Number of nearest neighbors to use to construct the
target simplicial set. Default value is n_neighbors . Applies only if
y is nonNULL and numeric .

target_metric 
The metric used to measure distance for y if
using supervised dimension reduction. Used only if y is numeric.

target_weight 
Weighting factor between data topology and target
topology. A value of 0.0 weights entirely on data, a value of 1.0 weights
entirely on target. The default of 0.5 balances the weighting equally
between data and target. Only applies if y is nonNULL .

pca 
If set to a positive integer value, reduce data to this number of
columns using PCA. Doesn't applied if the distance metric is
"hamming" , or the dimensions of the data is larger than the
number specified (i.e. number of rows and columns must be larger than the
value of this parameter). If you have > 100 columns in a data frame or
matrix, reducing the number of columns in this way may substantially
increase the performance of the nearest neighbor search at the cost of a
potential decrease in accuracy. In many tSNE applications, a value of 50
is recommended, although there's no guarantee that this is appropriate for
all settings.

pca_center 
If TRUE , center the columns of X before
carrying out PCA. For binary data, it's recommended to set this to
FALSE .

pcg_rand 
If TRUE , use the PCG random number generator (O'Neill,
2014) during optimization. Otherwise, use the faster (but probably less
statistically good) Tausworthe "taus88" generator. The default is
TRUE .

fast_sgd 
If TRUE , then the following combination of parameters
is set: pcg_rand = TRUE and n_sgd_threads = "auto" . The
default is FALSE . Setting this to TRUE will speed up the
stochastic optimization phase, but give a potentially less accurate
embedding, and which will not be exactly reproducible even with a fixed
seed. For visualization, fast_sgd = TRUE will give perfectly good
results. For more generic dimensionality reduction, it's safer to leave
fast_sgd = FALSE . If fast_sgd = TRUE , then usersupplied
values of pcg_rand and n_sgd_threads , are ignored.

ret_model 
If TRUE , then return extra data that can be used to
add new data to an existing embedding via umap_transform . The
embedded coordinates are returned as the list item embedding . If
FALSE , just return the coordinates. This parameter can be used in
conjunction with ret_nn and ret_extra . Note that some
settings are incompatible with the production of a UMAP model: external
neighbor data (passed via a list to nn_method ), and factor columns
that were included via the metric parameter. In the latter case, the
model produced is based only on the numeric data. A transformation using
new data is possible, but the factor columns in the new data are ignored.

ret_nn 
If TRUE , then in addition to the embedding, also return
nearest neighbor data that can be used as input to nn_method to
avoid the overhead of repeatedly calculating the nearest neighbors when
manipulating unrelated parameters (e.g. min_dist , n_epochs ,
init ). See the "Value" section for the names of the list items. If
FALSE , just return the coordinates. Note that the nearest neighbors
could be sensitive to data scaling, so be wary of reusing nearest neighbor
data if modifying the scale parameter. This parameter can be used in
conjunction with ret_model and ret_extra .

ret_extra 
A vector indicating what extra data to return. May contain
any combination of the following strings:

"model" Same as setting ret_model = TRUE .

"nn" Same as setting ret_nn = TRUE .

"fgraph" the high dimensional fuzzy graph (i.e. the fuzzy
simplicial set of the merged local views of the input data). The graph
is returned as a sparse symmetric N x N matrix of class
dgCMatrixclass, where a nonzero entry (i, j) gives the
membership strength of the edge connecting vertex i and vertex j. This
can be considered analogous to the input probability (or similarity or
affinity) used in tSNE and LargeVis. Note that the graph is further
sparsified by removing edges with sufficiently low membership strength
that they would not be sampled by the probabilistic edge sampling
employed for optimization and therefore the number of nonzero elements
in the matrix is dependent on n_epochs . If you are only
interested in the fuzzy input graph (e.g. for clustering), setting
n_epochs = 0 will avoid any further sparsifying. Be aware that
setting binary_edge_weights = TRUE will affect this graph (all
nonzero edge weights will be 1).

"sigma" the normalization value for each observation in the
dataset when constructing the smoothed distances to each of its
neighbors. This gives some sense of the local density of each
observation in the high dimensional space: higher values of
sigma indicate a higher dispersion or lower density.

tmpdir 
Temporary directory to store nearest neighbor indexes during
nearest neighbor search. Default is tempdir . The index is
only written to disk if n_threads > 1 and
nn_method = "annoy" ; otherwise, this parameter is ignored.

verbose 
If TRUE , log details to the console.

batch 
If TRUE , then embedding coordinates are updated at the
end of each epoch rather than during the epoch. In batch mode, results are
reproducible with a fixed random seed even with n_sgd_threads > 1 ,
at the cost of a slightly higher memory use. You may also have to modify
learning_rate and increase n_epochs , so whether this provides
a speed increase over the singlethreaded optimization is likely to be
dataset and hardwaredependent.

opt_args 
A list of optimizer parameters, used when
batch = TRUE . The default optimization method used is Adam (Kingma
and Ba, 2014).

method The optimization method to use. Either "adam"
or "sgd" (stochastic gradient descent). Default: "adam" .

beta1 (Adam only). The weighting parameter for the
exponential moving average of the first moment estimator. Effectively the
momentum parameter. Should be a floating point value between 0 and 1.
Higher values can smooth oscillatory updates in poorlyconditioned
situations and may allow for a larger learning_rate to be
specified, but too high can cause divergence. Default: 0.5 .

beta2 (Adam only). The weighting parameter for the
exponential moving average of the uncentered second moment estimator.
Should be a floating point value between 0 and 1. Controls the degree of
adaptivity in the stepsize. Higher values put more weight on previous
time steps. Default: 0.9 .

eps (Adam only). Intended to be a small value to prevent
division by zero, but in practice can also affect convergence due to its
interaction with beta2 . Higher values reduce the effect of the
stepsize adaptivity and bring the behavior closer to stochastic gradient
descent with momentum. Typical values are between 1e8 and 1e3. Default:
1e7 .

alpha The initial learning rate. Default: the value of the
learning_rate parameter.

epoch_callback 
A function which will be invoked at the end of every
epoch. Its signature should be: (epoch, n_epochs, coords) , where:

epoch The current epoch number (between 1 and
n_epochs ).

n_epochs Number of epochs to use during the optimization of
the embedded coordinates.

coords The embedded coordinates as of the end of the current
epoch, as a matrix with dimensions (N, n_components ).

pca_method 
Method to carry out any PCA dimensionality reduction when
the pca parameter is specified. Allowed values are:
"irlba" . Uses prcomp_irlba from the
irlba package.
"rsvd" . Uses 5 iterations of svdr from
the irlba package.
This is likely to give much faster but potentially less accurate results
than using "irlba" . For the purposes of nearest neighbor
calculation and coordinates initialization, any loss of accuracy doesn't
seem to matter much.
"bigstatsr" . Uses big_randomSVD
from the bigstatsr
package. The SVD methods used in bigstatsr may be faster on
systems without access to efficient linear algebra libraries (e.g.
Windows). Note: bigstatsr is not a dependency of
uwot: if you choose to use this package for PCA, you must install
it yourself.
"svd" . Uses svd for the SVD. This is
likely to be slow for all but the smallest datasets.
"auto" (the default). Uses "irlba" , unless more than
50
case "svd" is used.

binary_edge_weights 
If TRUE then edge weights in the input
graph are treated as binary (0/1) rather than real valued. This affects the
sampling frequency of neighbors and is the strategy used by the PaCMAP
method (Wang and coworkers, 2020). Practical (Böhm and coworkers, 2020)
and theoretical (Damrich and Hamprecht, 2021) work suggests this has little
effect on UMAP's performance.
