bramblecanes: Hutchings' Bramble Canes data

Description Usage Format Notes Source References


Data giving the locations and ages of bramble canes in a field. A marked point pattern.




An object of class "ppp" representing the point pattern of plant locations. Entries include

x Cartesian x-coordinate of plant
y Cartesian y-coordinate of plant
marks factor with levels 0,1, 2 indicating age

See ppp.object for details of the format.


These data record the (x,y) locations and ages of bramble canes in a field 9 metres square, rescaled to the unit square. The canes were classified according to age as either newly emergent, one or two years old. These are encoded as marks 0, 1 and 2 respectively in the dataset.

The data were recorded and analysed by Hutchings (1979) and further analysed by Diggle (1981a, 1981b, 1983), Diggle and Milne (1983), and Van Lieshout and Baddeley (1999). All analyses found that the pattern of newly emergent canes exhibits clustering, which Hutchings attributes to “vigorous vegetative reproduction”.


Hutchings (1979), data published in Diggle (1983)


Diggle, P. J. (1981a) Some graphical methods in the analysis of spatial point patterns. In Interpreting multivariate data, V. Barnett (Ed.) John Wiley and Sons.

Diggle, P. J. (1981b). Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns. N.Z. Statist. 16, 22–41.

Diggle, P.J. (1983) Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns. Academic Press.

Diggle, P. J. and Milne, R. K. (1983) Bivariate Cox processes: some models for bivariate spatial point patterns. Journal of the Royal Statistical Soc. Series B 45, 11–21.

Hutchings, M. J. (1979) Standing crop and pattern in pure stands of Mercurialis perennis and Rubus fruticosus in mixed deciduous woodland. Oikos 31, 351–357.

Van Lieshout, M.N.M. and Baddeley, A.J. (1999) Indices of dependence between types in multivariate point patterns. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 26, 511–532.

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