redwoodfull: California Redwoods Point Pattern (Entire Dataset)

Description Usage Format Source References See Also Examples


These data represent the locations of 195 seedlings and saplings of California redwood trees in a square sampling region. They were described and analysed by Strauss (1975). This is the “full” dataset; most writers have analysed a subset extracted by Ripley (1977) which is available as redwood.

Strauss (1975) divided the sampling region into two subregions I and II demarcated by a diagonal line. The spatial pattern appears to be slightly regular in region I and strongly clustered in region II.

Strauss (1975) writes: “It was felt that the seedlings would be scattered fairly randomly, except that a number of tight clusters would form around some of the redwood tree stumps present in the plot. A discontinuity in the soil, very roughly demarked by the diagonal line in the figure, was expected to cause a difference in clustering behaviour between regions I and II. Moreover, almost all the redwood stumps were situated in region II.”

The dataset redwoodfull contains the full point pattern of 195 trees. The window has been rescaled to the unit square. Its physical size is approximately 130 feet across.

The auxiliary information about the subregions is contained in redwoodfull.extra, which is a list with entries

rdiag The coordinates of the diagonal boundary
between regions I and II
regionI Region I as a window object
regionII Region II as a window object
regionR Ripley's subrectangle (approximate)
plotit Function to plot the full data and auxiliary markings

Ripley (1977) extracted a subset of these data, containing 62 points, lying within a square subregion which overlaps regions I and II. He rescaled that subset to the unit square. This subset has been re-analysed many times, and is the dataset usually known as “the redwood data” in the spatial statistics literature. The exact dataset used by Ripley is supplied in the spatstat library as redwood.

The approximate position of the square chosen by Ripley within the redwoodfull pattern is indicated by the window redwoodfull.extra$regionR. There are some minor inconsistencies with redwood since it originates from a different digitisation.




The dataset redwoodfull is an object of class "ppp" representing the point pattern of tree locations. See ppp.object for details of the format of a point pattern object. The window has been rescaled to the unit square. Its physical size is approximately 128 feet across.

The dataset redwoodfull.extra is a list with entries

rdiag coordinates of endpoints of a line,
in format list(x=numeric(2),y=numeric(2))
regionI a window object
regionII a window object
regionR a window object
plotit Function with no arguments


Strauss (1975). The plot of the data published by Strauss (1975) was scanned and digitised by Sandra Pereira, University of Western Australia, 2002.


Diggle, P.J. (1983) Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns. Academic Press.

Ripley, B.D. (1977) Modelling spatial patterns (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 39, 172–212.

Strauss, D.J. (1975) A model for clustering. Biometrika 62, 467–475.

See Also



  if(require(spatstat)) {
       # extract the pattern in region II 
       redwoodII <- redwoodfull[, redwoodfull.extra$regionII]

spatstat/ documentation built on Nov. 24, 2017, 6:46 a.m.