weightedMedian: Weighted Median Value

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Benchmarks Author(s) References See Also Examples

View source: R/weightedMedian.R

Description

Computes a weighted median of a numeric vector.

Usage

1
2
weightedMedian(x, w, na.rm=NA, interpolate=is.null(ties), ties=NULL,
  method=c("quick", "shell"), ...)

Arguments

x

a numeric vector containing the values whose weighted median is to be computed.

w

a vector of weights the same length as x giving the weights to use for each element of x. Negative weights are treated as zero weights. Default value is equal weight to all values.

na.rm

a logical value indicating whether NA values in x should be stripped before the computation proceeds, or not. If NA, no check at all for NAs is done. Default value is NA (for effiency).

interpolate

If TRUE, linear interpolation is used to get a consistent estimate of the weighted median.

ties

If interpolate == FALSE, a character string specifying how to solve ties between two x's that are satisfying the weighted median criteria. Note that at most two values can satisfy the criteria. When ties is "min", the smaller value of the two is returned and when it is "max", the larger value is returned. If ties is "mean", the mean of the two values is returned and if it is "both", both values are returned. Finally, if ties is "weighted" (or NULL) a weighted average of the two are returned, where the weights are weights of all values x[i] <= x[k] and x[i] >= x[k], respectively.

method

If "shell", then order() is used and when method="quick", then internal qsort() is used.

...

Not used.

Details

For the n elements x = c(x[1], x[2], ..., x[n]) with positive weights w = c(w[1], w[2], ..., w[n]) such that sum(w) = S, the weighted median is defined as the element x[k] for which the total weight of all elements x[i] < x[k] is less or equal to S/2 and for which the total weight of all elements x[i] > x[k] is less or equal to S/2 (c.f. [1]).

If w is missing then all elements of x are given the same positive weight. If all weights are zero, NA is returned.

If one or more weights are Inf, it is the same as these weights have the same weight and the others has zero. This makes things easier for cases where the weights are result of a division with zero. In this case median() is used internally.

When all the weights are the same (after values with weight zero are excluded and Inf's are taken care of), median is used internally.

The weighted median solves the following optimization problem:

α^* = \arg_α \min ∑_{k=1}{K} w_k |x_k-α|

where x=(x_1,x_2,…,x_K) are scalars and w=(w_1,w_2,…,w_K) are the corresponding "weights" for each individual x value.

Value

Returns a numeric scalar.

Benchmarks

When implementing this function speed has been highly prioritized and it also making use of the internal quick sort algorithm (from R v1.5.0). The result is that weightedMedian(x) is about half as slow as median(x).

Initial test also indicates that method="shell", which uses order() is slower than method="quick", which uses internal qsort(). Non-weighted median can use partial sorting which is faster because all values do not have to be sorted.

See examples below for some simple benchmarking tests.

Author(s)

Henrik Bengtsson and Ola Hössjer, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University. Thanks to Roger Koenker, Econometrics, University of Illinois, for the initial ideas.

References

[1] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms, The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989.

See Also

median, mean() and weighted.mean.

Examples

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
x <- 1:10
n <- length(x)

m1 <- median(x)                           # 5.5
m2 <- weightedMedian(x)                   # 5.5
stopifnot(identical(m1, m2))

w <- rep(1, n)
m1 <- weightedMedian(x, w)                # 5.5 (default)
m2 <- weightedMedian(x, ties="weighted")  # 5.5 (default)
m3 <- weightedMedian(x, ties="min")       # 5
m4 <- weightedMedian(x, ties="max")       # 6
stopifnot(identical(m1,m2))

# Pull the median towards zero
w[1] <- 5
m1 <- weightedMedian(x, w)                # 3.5
y <- c(rep(0,w[1]), x[-1])                # Only possible for integer weights
m2 <- median(y)                           # 3.5
stopifnot(identical(m1,m2))

# Put even more weight on the zero
w[1] <- 8.5
weightedMedian(x, w)                # 2

# All weight on the first value
w[1] <- Inf
weightedMedian(x, w)                # 1

# All weight on the last value
w[1] <- 1
w[n] <- Inf
weightedMedian(x, w)                # 10

# All weights set to zero
w <- rep(0, n)
weightedMedian(x, w)                # NA

# Simple benchmarking
bench <- function(N=1e5, K=10) {
  x <- rnorm(N)
  t <- c()
  t[1] <- system.time(for (k in 1:K) median(x))[3]
  t[2] <- system.time(for (k in 1:K) weightedMedian(x, method="quick"))[3]
  t[3] <- system.time(for (k in 1:K) weightedMedian(x, method="shell"))[3]
  t <- t / t[1]
  t[4] <- t[2]/t[3]
  names(t) <- c("median", "wMed-quick", "wMed-shell", "quick/shell")
  t
}

print(bench(N=  5, K=500))
print(bench(N= 50, K=500))
print(bench(N=200, K=200))
print(bench(N=1e5, K=5))

matrixStats documentation built on May 31, 2017, 2:26 a.m.