# Normal: The Normal Distribution

 Normal R Documentation

## The Normal Distribution

### Description

Density, distribution function, quantile function and random generation for the normal distribution with mean equal to `mean` and standard deviation equal to `sd`.

### Usage

```dnorm(x, mean = 0, sd = 1, log = FALSE)
pnorm(q, mean = 0, sd = 1, lower.tail = TRUE, log.p = FALSE)
qnorm(p, mean = 0, sd = 1, lower.tail = TRUE, log.p = FALSE)
rnorm(n, mean = 0, sd = 1)
```

### Arguments

 `x, q` vector of quantiles. `p` vector of probabilities. `n` number of observations. If `length(n) > 1`, the length is taken to be the number required. `mean` vector of means. `sd` vector of standard deviations. `log, log.p` logical; if TRUE, probabilities p are given as log(p). `lower.tail` logical; if TRUE (default), probabilities are P[X ≤ x] otherwise, P[X > x].

### Details

If `mean` or `sd` are not specified they assume the default values of `0` and `1`, respectively.

The normal distribution has density

f(x) = 1/(√(2 π) σ) e^-((x - μ)^2/(2 σ^2))

where μ is the mean of the distribution and σ the standard deviation.

### Value

`dnorm` gives the density, `pnorm` gives the distribution function, `qnorm` gives the quantile function, and `rnorm` generates random deviates.

The length of the result is determined by `n` for `rnorm`, and is the maximum of the lengths of the numerical arguments for the other functions.

The numerical arguments other than `n` are recycled to the length of the result. Only the first elements of the logical arguments are used.

For `sd = 0` this gives the limit as `sd` decreases to 0, a point mass at `mu`. `sd < 0` is an error and returns `NaN`.

### Source

For `pnorm`, based on

Cody, W. D. (1993) Algorithm 715: SPECFUN – A portable FORTRAN package of special function routines and test drivers. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 19, 22–32.

For `qnorm`, the code is a C translation of

Wichura, M. J. (1988) Algorithm AS 241: The percentage points of the normal distribution. Applied Statistics, 37, 477–484.

which provides precise results up to about 16 digits.

For `rnorm`, see RNG for how to select the algorithm and for references to the supplied methods.

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Johnson, N. L., Kotz, S. and Balakrishnan, N. (1995) Continuous Univariate Distributions, volume 1, chapter 13. Wiley, New York.

Distributions for other standard distributions, including `dlnorm` for the Lognormal distribution.

### Examples

```require(graphics)

dnorm(0) == 1/sqrt(2*pi)
dnorm(1) == exp(-1/2)/sqrt(2*pi)
dnorm(1) == 1/sqrt(2*pi*exp(1))

## Using "log = TRUE" for an extended range :
par(mfrow = c(2,1))
plot(function(x) dnorm(x, log = TRUE), -60, 50,
main = "log { Normal density }")
curve(log(dnorm(x)), add = TRUE, col = "red", lwd = 2)
mtext("log(dnorm(x))", col = "red", adj = 1)

plot(function(x) pnorm(x, log.p = TRUE), -50, 10,
main = "log { Normal Cumulative }")
curve(log(pnorm(x)), add = TRUE, col = "red", lwd = 2)