Flat Contingency Tables
Create ‘flat’ contingency tables.
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R objects which can be interpreted as factors (including
character strings), or a list (or data frame) whose components can
be so interpreted, or a contingency table object of class
values to use in the exclude argument of
a vector of integers giving the numbers of the variables, or a character vector giving the names of the variables to be used for the rows of the flat contingency table.
a vector of integers giving the numbers of the variables, or a character vector giving the names of the variables to be used for the columns of the flat contingency table.
ftable creates ‘flat’ contingency tables. Similar to the
usual contingency tables, these contain the counts of each combination
of the levels of the variables (factors) involved. This information
is then re-arranged as a matrix whose rows and columns correspond to
unique combinations of the levels of the row and column variables (as
col.vars, respectively). The
combinations are created by looping over the variables in reverse
order (so that the levels of the left-most variable vary the
slowest). Displaying a contingency table in this flat matrix form
print.ftable, the print method for objects of class
"ftable") is often preferable to showing it as a
ftable is a generic function. Its default method,
ftable.default, first creates a contingency table in array
form from all arguments except
If the first argument is of class
"table", it represents a
contingency table and is used as is; if it is a flat table of class
"ftable", the information it contains is converted to the usual
array representation using
as.ftable. Otherwise, the arguments
should be R objects which can be interpreted as factors (including
character strings), or a list (or data frame) whose components can be
so interpreted, which are cross-tabulated using
Then, the arguments
col.vars are used to
collapse the contingency table into flat form. If neither of these
two is given, the last variable is used for the columns. If both are
given and their union is a proper subset of all variables involved,
the other variables are summed out.
When the arguments are R expressions interpreted as factors,
additional arguments will be passed to
table to control how
the variable names are displayed; see the last example below.
ftable.formula provides a formula method for
creating flat contingency tables.
There are methods for
ftable returns an object of class
"ftable", which is a
matrix with counts of each combination of the levels of variables with
information on the names and levels of the (row and columns) variables
stored as attributes
ftable.formula for the formula interface (which allows a
data = . argument);
read.ftable for information on reading, writing and
coercing flat contingency tables;
table for ordinary cross-tabulation;
xtabs for formula-based cross-tabulation.
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## Start with a contingency table. ftable(Titanic, row.vars = 1:3) ftable(Titanic, row.vars = 1:2, col.vars = "Survived") ftable(Titanic, row.vars = 2:1, col.vars = "Survived") ## Start with a data frame. x <- ftable(mtcars[c("cyl", "vs", "am", "gear")]) x ftable(x, row.vars = c(2, 4)) ## Start with expressions, use table()'s "dnn" to change labels ftable(mtcars$cyl, mtcars$vs, mtcars$am, mtcars$gear, row.vars = c(2, 4), dnn = c("Cylinders", "V/S", "Transmission", "Gears"))