ensemble.evaluate: Model evaluation including True Skill Statistic (TSS),...

ensemble.evaluateR Documentation

Model evaluation including True Skill Statistic (TSS), AUCdiff and Symmetric Extremal Dependence Index (SEDI).

Description

The main function of ensemble.evaluate calculates various model evaluation statistics. Function ENSEMBLE.SEDI calculates the Symmetric Extremal Dependence Index (SEDI) from the True Positive Rate (TPR = Sensitivity = Hit Rate) and the False Positive Rate (FPR = False Alarm Rate = 1 - Specificity).

Usage


ensemble.evaluate(eval, fixed.threshold = NULL, eval.train = NULL) 

ensemble.SEDI(TPR, FPR, small = 1e-9) 

ensemble.Tjur(eval)

Arguments

eval

ModelEvaluation object (evaluate), ideally obtained via model testing data that were not used for calibrating the model.

fixed.threshold

Absence-presence threshold to create the confusion matrix. See also (threshold and ensemble.threshold).

eval.train

ModelEvaluation object (evaluate), ideally obtained via model calibration data that were used for calibrating the model.

TPR

True Presence Rate, equal to correctly predicted presence observations divided by total number of presence observations. Also known as Sensitivity or Hit Rate.

FPR

False Presence Rate, equal to wrongly predicted absence observations divided by total number of absence observations. Also known as False Alarm Rate.

small

small amount that replaces zeroes in calculations.

Details

Details for the True Skill Statistic (TSS = TPR + TNR - 1 = TPR - FPR), Symmetric Extremal Dependence Index (SEDI), False Negative Rate (omission or miss rate) and AUCdiff (AUCtrain - AUCtest) are available from Ferro and Stephenson (2011), Wunderlich et al. (2019) and Castellanos et al. (2019).

Tjur's (2009) coefficient of discrimination is calculated as the differences between the averages of fitted values for successes and failures (see also Erikson & Smith 2023).

Values for TSS and SEDI are given for the fixed absence-presence threshold, as well as their maximal values across the entire range of candidate threshold values calculate by evaluate.

In case that fixed.threshold is not provided, it is calculated from the calibration ModelEvaluation as the threshold that maximizes the sum of TPR (sensitivity) and TNR (specificity) (and thus also maximizes the TSS for the calibration).

Value

A numeric vector with following values.

- AUC: Area Under The Curve for the testing ModelEvaluation

- TSS: maximum value of the True Skill Statistic over range of threshold values

- SEDI: maximum value of the Symmetric Extremal Dependence Index over range of threshold values

- TSS.fixed: True Skill Statistic at the fixed threshold value

- SEDI.fixed: SEDI at the fixed threshold value

- FNR.fixed: False Negative Rate (= omission rate) at the fixed threshold value

- MCR.fixed: Missclassification Rate at the fixed threshold value

- AUCdiff: Difference between AUC for calibration and the testing data

- Tjur: Coefficient of Discrimination proposed by Tjur (2009)

Author(s)

Roeland Kindt (World Agroforestry Centre)

References

Ferro CA, Stephenson DB. 2011. Extremal Dependence Indices: Improved Verification Measures for Deterministic Forecasts of Rare Binary Events. Wea. Forecasting 26: 699-713.

Wunderlich RF, Lin Y-P, Anthony J, Petway JR. 2019. Two alternative evaluation metrics to replace the true skill statistic in the assessment of species distribution models. Nature Conservation 35: 97-116. \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.3897/natureconservation.35.33918")}

Castellanos AA, Huntley JW, Voelker G, Lawing AM. 2019. Environmental filtering improves ecological niche models across multiple scales. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 10: 481-492.

Kindt R. 2018. Ensemble species distribution modelling with transformed suitability values. Environmental Modelling & Software 100: 136-145. \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1016/j.envsoft.2017.11.009")}

Tjur T. 2009. Coefficient of determination in logistic regression models - a new proposal: the coefficient of discrimination. The American Statistician 63: 366-372. \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1198/tast.2009.08210")}

Erickson KD, Smith AB. 2023. Modelling the rarest of the rare: a comparison between multi-species distribution models, ensembles of small models, and single-species models at extremely low sample sizes. Ecography e06500 \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1111/ecog.06500")}

See Also

ensemble.batch

Examples


## check examples from Ferro and Stephenson (2011)
## see their Tables 2 - 5

TPR.Table2 <- 55/100
FPR.Table2 <- 45/900
ensemble.SEDI(TPR=TPR.Table2, FPR=FPR.Table2)

TPR.Table4 <- 195/300
FPR.Table4 <- 105/700
ensemble.SEDI(TPR=TPR.Table4, FPR=FPR.Table4)

## Not run: 
## Not run: 
# get predictor variables
library(dismo)
predictor.files <- list.files(path=paste(system.file(package="dismo"), '/ex', sep=''),
    pattern='grd', full.names=TRUE)
predictors <- stack(predictor.files)
# subset based on Variance Inflation Factors
predictors <- subset(predictors, subset=c("bio5", "bio6", 
    "bio16", "bio17", "biome"))
predictors
predictors@title <- "predictors"

# presence points
presence_file <- paste(system.file(package="dismo"), '/ex/bradypus.csv', sep='')
pres <- read.table(presence_file, header=TRUE, sep=',')[,-1]

# the kfold function randomly assigns data to groups; 
# groups are used as calibration (1/4) and training (3/4) data
groupp <- kfold(pres, 4)
pres_train <- pres[groupp !=  1, ]
pres_test <- pres[groupp ==  1, ]

# choose background points
background <- randomPoints(predictors, n=1000, extf=1.00)
colnames(background)=c('lon', 'lat')
groupa <- kfold(background, 4)
backg_train <- background[groupa != 1, ]
backg_test <- background[groupa == 1, ]

# formulae for random forest and generalized linear model
# compare with: ensemble.formulae(predictors, factors=c("biome"))

rfformula <- as.formula(pb ~ bio5+bio6+bio16+bio17)

glmformula <- as.formula(pb ~ bio5 + I(bio5^2) + I(bio5^3) + 
    bio6 + I(bio6^2) + I(bio6^3) + bio16 + I(bio16^2) + I(bio16^3) + 
    bio17 + I(bio17^2) + I(bio17^3) )

# fit four ensemble models (RF, GLM, BIOCLIM, DOMAIN)
# factors removed for BIOCLIM, DOMAIN, MAHAL
ensemble.nofactors <- ensemble.calibrate.models(x=predictors, p=pres_train, a=backg_train, 
    pt=pres_test, at=backg_test,
    species.name="Bradypus",
    ENSEMBLE.tune=TRUE,
    ENSEMBLE.min = 0.65,
    MAXENT=0, MAXNET=0, MAXLIKE=0, GBM=0, GBMSTEP=0, RF=1, CF=0, 
    GLM=1, GLMSTEP=0, GAM=0, GAMSTEP=0, MGCV=0, MGCVFIX=0, 
    EARTH=0, RPART=0, NNET=0, FDA=0, SVM=0, SVME=0, GLMNET=0,
    BIOCLIM.O=0, BIOCLIM=1, DOMAIN=1, MAHAL=0, MAHAL01=0,
    Yweights="BIOMOD",
    factors="biome",
    evaluations.keep=TRUE, models.keep=FALSE,
    RF.formula=rfformula,
    GLM.formula=glmformula)

# with option evaluations.keep, all model evaluations are saved in the ensemble object
attributes(ensemble.nofactors$evaluations)

# Get evaluation statistics for the ENSEMBLE model
eval.ENSEMBLE <- ensemble.nofactors$evaluations$ENSEMBLE.T
eval.calibrate.ENSEMBLE <- ensemble.nofactors$evaluations$ENSEMBLE.C
ensemble.evaluate(eval=eval.ENSEMBLE, eval.train=eval.calibrate.ENSEMBLE)

# TSS is maximum where specificity + sensitivity is maximum
threshold.specsens <- threshold(eval.ENSEMBLE, stat="spec_sens")
ensemble.evaluate(eval=eval.ENSEMBLE, fixed.threshold=threshold.specsens,
    eval.train=eval.calibrate.ENSEMBLE)

# usual practice to calculate threshold from calibration data
ensemble.evaluate(eval=eval.ENSEMBLE, eval.train=eval.calibrate.ENSEMBLE)


## End(Not run)



BiodiversityR documentation built on Oct. 22, 2023, 5:06 p.m.