Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples
This function implements three estimators for the population ATE— a regression estimator, an inverse propensity weighted (IPW) estimator, and an augmented inverse propensity weighted (AIPW) estimator— using generalized additive models.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7  estimate.ATE(pscore.formula, pscore.family,
outcome.formula.t, outcome.formula.c, outcome.family,
treatment.var, data = NULL,
divby0.action = c("fail", "truncate", "discard"),
divby0.tol = 1e08, nboot = 501,
variance.smooth.deg = 1, variance.smooth.span = 0.75,
var.gam.plot = TRUE, suppress.warnings = TRUE, ...)

pscore.formula 
A formula expression for the propensity score model. See the documentation of 
pscore.family 
A description of the error distribution and link function to be used for the propensity score model. See the documentation of 
outcome.formula.t 
A formula expression for the outcome model under active treatment. See the documentation of 
outcome.formula.c 
A formula expression for the outcome model under control. See the documentation of 
outcome.family 
A description of the error distribution and link function to be used for the outcome models. See the documentation of 
treatment.var 
A character variable giving the name of the binary treatment variable in 
data 
A nonoptional data frame containing the variables in the model. 
divby0.action 
A character variable describing what action to take when some estimated propensity scores are less than 
divby0.tol 
A scalar in [0,0.5) giving the tolerance level for extreme propensity scores. Defaults to 1e8. See 
nboot 
Number of bootrap replications used for calculating bootstrap standard errors. If 
variance.smooth.deg 
The degree of the loess smooth used to calculate the conditional error variance of the outcome models given the estimated propensity scores. Possible values are 0, 1, or 2. Defaults to 1. If set to a value less than 0 than the conditional error variance will not be calculated and the estimated asymptotic standard errors will not be reported. See 
variance.smooth.span 
The span of the loess smooth used to calculate the conditional error variance of the outcome models given the estimated propensity scores. Defaults to 10.75. If set to a value less than or equal to 0 than the conditional error variance will not be calculated and the estimated asymptotic standard errors will not be reported.See 
var.gam.plot 
Logical value indicating whether the estimated conditional variances should be plotted against the estimated propensity scores. Setting 
suppress.warnings 
Logical value indicating whether warnings from the 
... 
Further arguments to be passed. 
The three estimators implemented by this function are a regression estimator, an IPW estimator with weights normalized to sum to 1, and an AIPW estimator. Glynn and Quinn (2010) provides details regarding how each of these estimators are implemented. The AIPW estimator requires the specification of both a propensity score model governing treatment assignment and outcome models that describe the conditional expectation of the outcome variable given measured confounders and treatment status. The AIPW estimator has the socalled double robustness property. This means that if either the propensity score model or the outcomes models are correctly specified then the estimator is consistent for ATE.
Standard errors for the regression and IPW estimators can be calculated by either the bootstrap or by estimating the large sample standard errors. The latter approach requires estimation of the conditional variance of the disturbances in the outcome models given the propensity scores (see section IV of Imbens (2004) for details). The accuracy of these standard errors is only as good as one's estimates of these conditional variances.
Standard errors for the AIPW estimator can be calculated similarly. In addition, Lunceford and Davidian (2004) also discuss an empirical sandwich estimator of the sampling variance which is also implemented here.
An object of class CausalGAM
with the following attributes:
ATE.AIPW.hat 
AIPW estimate of ATE. 
ATE.reg.hat 
Regression estimate of ATE. 
ATE.IPW.hat 
IPW estimate of ATE. 
ATE.AIPWsand.SE 
Empirical sandwich standard error for 
ATE.AIPW.asymp.SE 
Estimated asymptotic standard error for 
ATE.reg.asymp.SE 
Estimated asymptotic standard error for 
ATE.IPW.asymp.SE 
Estimated asymptotic standard error for 
ATE.AIPW.bs.SE 
Estimated bootstrap standard error for 
ATE.reg.bs.SE 
Estimated bootstrap standard error for 
ATE.IPW.bs.SE 
Estimated bootstrap standard error for 
ATE.AIPW.bs 
Vector of bootstrap replications of 
ATE.reg.bs 
Vector of bootstrap replications of 
ATE.IPW.bs 
Vector of bootstrap replications of 
gam.t 

gam.c 

gam.ps 

truncated.indic 
Logical vector indicating which rows of 
discarded.indic 
Logical vector indicating which rows of 
treated.value 
Value of 
control.value 
Value of 
treatment.var 

n.treated.prediscard 
Number of treated units before any truncations or discards. 
n.control.prediscard 
Number of control units before any truncations or discards. 
n.treated.postdiscard 
Number of treated units after truncations or discards. 
n.control.postdiscard 
Number of control units after truncations or discards. 
pscores.prediscard 
Estimated propensity scores before any truncations or discards. 
pscores.postdiscard 
Estimated propensity scores after truncations or discards. 
cond.var.t 
Vector of conditional error variances for the outcome for each unit under treatment given the unit's estimated propensity score. 
cond.var.c 
Vector of conditional error variances for the outcome for each unit under control given the unit's estimated propensity score. 
call 
The initial call to 
data 
The data frame sent to 
Adam Glynn, Emory University
Kevin Quinn, University of Michigan
Adam N. Glynn and Kevin M. Quinn. 2010. "An Introduction to the Augmented Inverse Propensity Weighted Estimator." Political Analysis.
Guido W. Imbens. 2004. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review." The Review of Economics and Statistics. 86: 429.
Jared K. Lunceford and Marie Davidian. 2004. "Stratification and Weighting via the Propensity Score in Estimation of Causal Treatment Effects: A Comparative Study." Statistics in Medicine. 23: 29372960.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109  ## Not run:
## a simulated data example with Gaussian outcomes
##
## number of units in sample
n < 2000
## measured potential confounders
z1 < rnorm(n)
z2 < rnorm(n)
z3 < rnorm(n)
z4 < rnorm(n)
## treatment assignment
prob.treated < pnorm(0.5 + 0.75*z2)
x < rbinom(n, 1, prob.treated)
## potential outcomes
y0 < z4 + rnorm(n)
y1 < z1 + z2 + z3 + cos(z3*2) + rnorm(n)
## observed outcomes
y < y0
y[x==1] < y1[x==1]
## put everything in a data frame
examp.data < data.frame(z1, z2, z3, z4, x, y)
## estimate ATE
##
## in a real example one would want to use a larger number of
## bootstrap replications
##
ATE.out < estimate.ATE(pscore.formula = x ~ s(z2),
pscore.family = binomial,
outcome.formula.t = y ~ s(z1) + s(z2) + s(z3) + s(z4),
outcome.formula.c = y ~ s(z1) + s(z2) + s(z3) + s(z4),
outcome.family = gaussian,
treatment.var = "x",
data=examp.data,
divby0.action="t",
divby0.tol=0.001,
var.gam.plot=FALSE,
nboot=50)
## print summary of estimates
print(ATE.out)
## a simulated data example with Bernoulli outcomes
##
## number of units in sample
n < 2000
## measured potential confounders
z1 < rnorm(n)
z2 < rnorm(n)
z3 < rnorm(n)
z4 < rnorm(n)
## treatment assignment
prob.treated < pnorm(0.5 + 0.75*z2)
x < rbinom(n, 1, prob.treated)
## potential outcomes
p0 < pnorm(z4)
p1 < pnorm(z1 + z2 + z3 + cos(z3*2))
y0 < rbinom(n, 1, p0)
y1 < rbinom(n, 1, p1)
## observed outcomes
y < y0
y[x==1] < y1[x==1]
## put everything in a data frame
examp.data < data.frame(z1, z2, z3, z4, x, y)
## estimate ATE
##
## in a real example one would want to use a larger number of
## bootstrap replications
##
ATE.out < estimate.ATE(pscore.formula = x ~ s(z2),
pscore.family = binomial,
outcome.formula.t = y ~ s(z1) + s(z2) + s(z3) + s(z4),
outcome.formula.c = y ~ s(z1) + s(z2) + s(z3) + s(z4),
outcome.family = binomial,
treatment.var = "x",
data=examp.data,
divby0.action="t",
divby0.tol=0.001,
var.gam.plot=FALSE,
nboot=50)
## print summary of estimates
print(ATE.out)
## End(Not run)

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