Data from A.-M. Guerry, "Essay on the Moral Statistics of France"

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Description

Andre-Michel Guerry (1833) was the first to systematically collect and analyze social data on such things as crime, literacy and suicide with the view to determining social laws and the relations among these variables.

The Guerry data frame comprises a collection of 'moral variables' on the 86 departments of France around 1830. A few additional variables have been added from other sources.

Usage

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Format

A data frame with 86 observations (the departments of France) on the following 23 variables.

dept

Department ID: Standard numbers for the departments, except for Corsica (200)

Region

Region of France ('N'='North', 'S'='South', 'E'='East', 'W'='West', 'C'='Central'). Corsica is coded as NA

Department

Department name: Departments are named according to usage in 1830, but without accents. A factor with levels Ain Aisne Allier ... Vosges Yonne

Crime_pers

Population per Crime against persons. Source: A2 (Compte général, 1825-1830)

Crime_prop

Population per Crime against property. Source: A2 (Compte général, 1825-1830)

Literacy

Percent Read & Write: Percent of military conscripts who can read and write. Source: A2

Donations

Donations to the poor. Source: A2 (Bulletin des lois)

Infants

Population per illegitimate birth. Source: A2 (Bureaau des Longitudes, 1817-1821)

Suicides

Population per suicide. Source: A2 (Compte général, 1827-1830)

MainCity

Size of principal city ('1:Sm', '2:Med', '3:Lg'), used as a surrogate for poulation density. Large refers to the top 10, small to the bottom 10; all the rest are classed Medium. Source: A1. An ordered factor with levels 1:Sm < 2:Med < 3:Lg

Wealth

Per capita tax on personal property. A ranked index based on taxes on personal and movable property per inhabitant. Source: A1

Commerce

Commerce and Industry, measured by the rank of the number of patents / population. Source: A1

Clergy

Distribution of clergy, measured by the rank of the number of Catholic priests in active service / population. Source: A1 (Almanach officiel du clergy, 1829)

Crime_parents

Crimes against parents, measured by the rank of the ratio of crimes against parents to all crimes– Average for the years 1825-1830. Source: A1 (Compte général)

Infanticide

Infanticides per capita. A ranked ratio of number of infanticides to population– Average for the years 1825-1830. Source: A1 (Compte général)

Donation_clergy

Donations to the clergy. A ranked ratio of the number of bequests and donations inter vivios to population– Average for the years 1815-1824. Source: A1 (Bull. des lois, ordunn. d'autorisation)

Lottery

Per capita wager on Royal Lottery. Ranked ratio of the proceeds bet on the royal lottery to population— Average for the years 1822-1826. Source: A1 (Compte rendus par le ministre des finances)

Desertion

Military disertion, ratio of the number of young soldiers accused of desertion to the force of the military contingent, minus the deficit produced by the insufficiency of available billets– Average of the years 1825-1827. Source: A1 (Compte du ministere du guerre, 1829 etat V)

Instruction

Instruction. Ranks recorded from Guerry's map of Instruction. Note: this is inversely related to Literacy (as defined here)

Prostitutes

Prostitutes in Paris. Number of prostitutes registered in Paris from 1816 to 1834, classified by the department of their birth Source: Parent-Duchatelet (1836), De la prostitution en Paris

Distance

Distance to Paris (km). Distance of each department centroid to the centroid of the Seine (Paris) Source: cakculated from department centroids

Area

Area (1000 km^2). Source: Angeville (1836)

Pop1831

1831 population. Population in 1831, taken from Angeville (1836), Essai sur la Statistique de la Population français, in 1000s

Details

Note that most of the variables (e.g., Crime_pers) are scaled so that 'more is better' morally.

Values for the quantitative variables displayed on Guerry's maps were taken from Table A2 in the English translation of Guerry (1833) by Whitt and Reinking. Values for the ranked variables were taken from Table A1, with some corrections applied. The maximum is indicated by rank 1, and the minimum by rank 86.

Source

Angeville, A. (1836). Essai sur la Statistique de la Population française Paris: F. Doufour.

Guerry, A.-M. (1833). Essai sur la statistique morale de la France Paris: Crochard. English translation: Hugh P. Whitt and Victor W. Reinking, Lewiston, N.Y. : Edwin Mellen Press, 2002.

Parent-Duchatelet, A. (1836). De la prostitution dans la ville de Paris, 3rd ed, 1857, p. 32, 36

References

Dray, S. and Jombart, T. (2011). A Revisit Of Guerry's Data: Introducing Spatial Constraints In Multivariate Analysis. The Annals of Applied Statistics, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2278-2299. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.6485.pdf, DOI: 10.1214/10-AOAS356.

Brunsdon, C. and Dykes, J. (2007). Geographically weighted visualization: interactive graphics for scale-varying exploratory analysis. Geographical Information Science Research Conference (GISRUK 07), NUI Maynooth, Ireland, April, 2007.

Friendly, M. (2007). A.-M. Guerry's Moral Statistics of France: Challenges for Multivariable Spatial Analysis. Statistical Science, 22, 368-399.

Friendly, M. (2007). Data from A.-M. Guerry, Essay on the Moral Statistics of France (1833), http://datavis.ca/gallery/guerry/guerrydat.html.

See Also

The Guerry package for maps of France: gfrance and related data.

Examples

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data(Guerry)
## maybe str(Guerry) ; plot(Guerry) ...

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