# Pyx: Trial of the Pyx In HistData: Data Sets from the History of Statistics and Data Visualization

## Description

Stigler (1997, 1999) recounts the history of one of the oldest continuous schemes of sampling inspection carried out by the Royal Mint in London for about eight centuries. The Trial of the Pyx was the final, ceremonial stage in a process designed to ensure that the weight and quality of gold and silver coins from the mint met the standards for coinage.

At regular intervals, coins would be taken from production and deposited into a box called the Pyx. When a Trial of the Pyx was called, the contents of the Pyx would be counted, weighed and assayed for content, and the results would be compared with the standard set for the Royal Mint.

The data frame `Pyx` gives the results for the year 1848 (Great Britain, 1848) in which 10,000 gold sovereigns were assayed. The coins in each bag were classified according to the deviation from the standard content of gold for each coin, called the Remedy, R = 123 * (12/5760) = .25625, in grains, for a single sovereign.

## Usage

 `1` ```data(Pyx) ```

## Format

A frequency data frame with 72 observations on the following 4 variables giving the distribution of 10,000 soverigns, classified according to the `Bags` in which they were collected and the `Deviation` from the standard weight.

`Bags`

an ordered factor with levels `1 and 2` < `3` < `4` < `5` < `6` < `7` < `8` < `9` < `10`

`Group`

an ordered factor with levels `below std` < `near std` < `above std`

`Deviation`

an ordered factor with levels `Below -R` < `(-R to -.2)` < `(-.2 to -.l)` < `(-.1 to 0)` < `(0 to .l)` < `(.1 to .2)` < `(.2 to R)` < `Above R`

`count`

number of soverigns

## Details

`Bags` 1-4 were selected as "near to standard", bags 5-7 as below standard, bags 8-10 as above standard. This classification is reflected in `Group`.

## Source

Stigler, S. M. (1999). Statistics on the Table. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, table 21.1.

## References

Great Britain (1848). "Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Constitution, Management and Expense of the Royal Mint." In Vol 28 of House Documents for 1849.

Stigler, S. M. (1997). Eight Centuries of Sampling Inspection: The Trial of the Pyx Journal of the American Statistical Association, 72(359), 493-500

## Examples

 ```1 2 3``` ```data(Pyx) # display as table xtabs(count ~ Bags+Deviation, data=Pyx) ```

### Example output

```         Deviation
Bags      Below -R (-R to -.2) (-.2 to -.l) (-.1 to 0) (0 to .l) (.1 to .2)
1 and 2       34          57          172        630       597        366
3             11          17          100        412       172        218
4             20          22          135        350       184        222
5             30         102          107        289       209        184
6             32          27          267        210       236        144
7             47          65          141        380       157        135
8             11          21          110        215       361        156
9             10          38          103        228       425        140
10            14          13          126        309       290        168
Deviation
Bags      (.2 to R) Above R
1 and 2       116      28
3              57      13
4              50      17
5              50      29
6              56      28
7              50      25
8              71      55
9              36      20
10             50      30
```

HistData documentation built on April 5, 2018, 1:03 a.m.