Kernel_Ridge_MM: Kernel ridge regression in the mixed model framework

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References Examples

Description

Kernel_Ridge_MM solves kernel ridge regression for various kernels within the following mixed model framework: Y =X*Beta + Z*U + E, where X and Z correspond to the design matrices of predictors with fixed and random effects respectively.

Usage

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	Kernel_Ridge_MM( Y_train, X_train=as.vector(rep(1,length(Y_train))), 

	Z_train=diag(1,length(Y_train)), Matrix_covariates_train, method="RKHS",

	kernel="Gaussian", rate_decay_kernel=0.1, degree_poly=2, scale_poly=1, 
	
	offset_poly=1, degree_anova=3, init_sigma2K=2, init_sigma2E=3, 

	convergence_precision=1e-8, nb_iter=1000, display="FALSE" )
	

Arguments

Y_train

numeric vector; response vector for training data

X_train

numeric matrix; design matrix of predictors with fixed effects for training data (default is a vector of ones)

Z_train

numeric matrix; design matrix of predictors with random effects for training data (default is identity matrix)

Matrix_covariates_train

numeric matrix of entries used to build the kernel matrix

method

character string; RKHS, GBLUP or RR-BLUP

kernel

character string; Gaussian, Laplacian or ANOVA (kernels for RKHS regression ONLY, the linear kernel is automatically built for GBLUP and RR-BLUP and hence no kernel is supplied for these methods)

rate_decay_kernel

numeric scalar; hyperparameter of the Gaussian, Laplacian or ANOVA kernel (default is 0.1)

degree_poly, scale_poly, offset_poly

numeric scalars; parameters for polynomial kernel (defaults are 2, 1 and 1 respectively)

degree_anova

numeric scalar; parameter for ANOVA kernel (defaults is 3)

init_sigma2K, init_sigma2E

numeric scalars; initial guess values, associated to the mixed model variance parameters, for the EM-REML algorithm (defaults are 2 and 3 respectively)

convergence_precision, nb_iter

numeric scalars; convergence precision (i.e. tolerance) associated to the mixed model variance parameters, for the EM-REML algorithm, and number of maximum iterations allowed if convergence is not reached (defaults are 1e-8 and 1000 respectively)

display

boolean (TRUE or FALSE character string); should estimated components be displayed at each iteration

Details

The matrix Matrix_covariates_train is mandatory to build the kernel matrix for model estimation, and prediction (see Predict_kernel_Ridge_MM).

Value

Beta_hat

Estimated fixed effect(s)

Sigma2K_hat, Sigma2E_hat

Estimated variance components

Vect_alpha

Estimated dual variables

Gamma_hat

RR-BLUP of covariates effects (i.e. available for RR-BLUP method only)

Author(s)

Laval Jacquin <[email protected]>

References

Jacquin et al. (2016). A unified and comprehensible view of parametric and kernel methods for genomic prediction with application to rice (in peer review).

Robinson, G. K. (1991). That blup is a good thing: the estimation of random effects. Statistical science, 534 15-32

Foulley, J.-L. (2002). Algorithme em: théorie et application au modèle mixte. Journal de la Société française de Statistique 143, 57-109

Examples

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## Not run: 

library(KRMM)

### SIMULATE DATA 
set.seed(123)
p=200
N=100

beta=rnorm(p, mean=0, sd=1.0)
X=matrix(runif(p*N, min=0, max=1), ncol=p, byrow=TRUE)  #X: covariates (i.e. predictors)

f=X%*%beta                    #f: data generating process (i.e. DGP)
E=rnorm(N, mean=0, sd=0.5)

Y=f+E                           #Y: observed response data

hist(f)
hist(beta)
Nb_train=floor((2/3)*N)

###======================================================================###
### CREATE TRAINING AND TARGET SETS FOR RESPONSE AND PREDICTOR VARIABLES ###
###======================================================================###

Index_train=sample(1:N, size=Nb_train, replace=FALSE)

### Covariates (i.e. predictors) for training and target sets

Predictors_train=X[Index_train, ]
Response_train=Y[Index_train]

Predictors_target=X[-Index_train, ]
True_value_target=f[-Index_train]    #True value (generated by DGP) we want to predict


###=================================================================================###
### PREDICTION WITH KERNEL RIDGE REGRESSION SOLVED WITHIN THE MIXED MODEL FRAMEWORK ### 
###=================================================================================###


#Linear kernel

Linear_KRR_model_train = Kernel_Ridge_MM(Y_train=Response_train, 
Matrix_covariates_train=Predictors_train, method="RR-BLUP")

f_hat_target_Linear_KRR = Predict_kernel_Ridge_MM( Linear_KRR_model_train, 
Matrix_covariates_target=Predictors_target )

#Gaussian kernel

Gaussian_KRR_model_train = Kernel_Ridge_MM( Y_train=Response_train, 
Matrix_covariates_train=Predictors_train, method="RKHS", rate_decay_kernel=5.0)
f_hat_target_Gaussian_KRR = Predict_kernel_Ridge_MM( Gaussian_KRR_model_train, 
Matrix_covariates_target=Predictors_target )


#Graphics for RR-BLUP

dev.new(width=30, height=20)
par(mfrow=c(3,1))	
plot(f_hat_target_Linear_KRR, True_value_target)
plot(Linear_KRR_model_train$Gamma_hat, xlab="Feature (i.e. covariate) number", 
 ylab="Feature effect (i.e. Gamma_hat)", main="BLUP of covariate effects based on training data")
hist(Linear_KRR_model_train$Gamma_hat, main="Distribution of BLUP of
covariate effects based on training data" )


# Compare prediction based on linear (i.e. RR-BLUP) and Gaussian kernel

par(mfrow=c(1,2))
plot(f_hat_target_Linear_KRR, True_value_target)
plot(f_hat_target_Gaussian_KRR, True_value_target)

mean((f_hat_target_Linear_KRR - True_value_target)^2)
mean((f_hat_target_Gaussian_KRR - True_value_target)^2)


## End(Not run)

KRMM documentation built on May 2, 2019, 2:50 p.m.