PropCIs-package: Confidence intervals for single, paired and independent...

Description Details Author(s) References


Computes confidence intervals for single proportions as well as for differences in dependent and independent proportions, the odds-ratio and the relative risk in a 2x2 table. Intervals are available for independent samples and matched pairs. The functions are partly written by assistants of Alan Agresti, see website


Package: PropCIs
Type: Package
Version: 0.2-5
Date: 2014-04-10
License: GPL=2
LazyLoad: yes


Ralph Scherer

Maintainer: Ralph Scherer <>


Agresti, A., Coull, B. (1998) Approximate is better than exact for interval estimation of binomial proportions. The American Statistician 52, 119–126.

Agresti, A., Caffo, B.(2000) Simple and effective confidence intervals for proportions and difference of proportions result from adding two successes and two failures. The American Statistician 54 (4), 280–288.

Agresti, A. (2002) Categorical Data Analysis. Wiley, 2nd Edition.

Agresti, A. and Min, Y. (2005) Simple improved confidence intervals for comparing matched proportions Statistics in Medicine 24 (5), 729–740.

Agresti, A., Gottard, A. (2005) Randomized confidence intervals and the mid-P approach, discussion of article by C. Geyer and G. Meeden, Statistical Science 20, 367–371.

Altman, D. G. (1999) Practical statistics for medical research. London, Chapman & Hall.

Blaker, H. (2000). Confidence curves and improved exact confidence intervals for discrete distributions, Canadian Journal of Statistics 28 (4), 783–798.

Clopper, C. and Pearson, E.S. (1934) The use of cenfidence or fiducial limits illustrated in the case of the binomial. Biometrika 26, 404–413.

Koopman PAR. (1985) Confidence limits for the ratio of two binomial proportions. Biometrics 40, 513–517.

Mee, RW. (1984) Confidence bounds for the difference between two probabilities. Biometrics 40, 1175–1176.

Miettinen OS, Nurminen M. (1985) Comparative analysis of two rates. Statistics in Medicine 4, 213–226.

Nam, J. M. (1995) Confidence limits for the ratio of two binomial proportions based on likelihood scores: Non-iterative method. Biom. J. 37 (3), 375–379.

Nurminen, M. (1986) Analysis of trends in proportions with an ordinally scaled determinant. Biometrical J. 28, 965–974.

Olivier, J. and May, W. L. (2006) Weighted confidence interval construction for binomial parameters Statistical Methods in Medical Research 15 (1), 37–46.

Tango T. (1998) Equivalence test and confidence interval for the difference in proportions for the paired-sample design Statistics in Medicine 17, 891–908.

Wilson, E. B. (1927) Probable inference, the law of succession, and statistical inference. J. Amer. Stat. Assoc. 22, 209–212.

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