At a swimming team practice, all participants were asked to swim their best event as far as possible, but in each case the time that was reported was falsified to indicate poorer than expected performance (i.e., each swimmer was disappointed). 30 min later, they did the same performance. The authors predicted that on the second trial more pessimistic swimmers would do worse than on their first trial, whereas optimistic swimmers would do better. The response is ratio = Time1/Time2 (> 1 means that a swimmer did better in trial 2).
A data frame with 4 variables and 58 observations:
Optimists and pessimists
Gender of the swimmer
Swimming event: freestyle, breaststroke, backstroke
Ratio between the swimming times
Seligman, M. E. P., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thornton, N., & Thornton, C. M. (1990). Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance. Psychological Science, 1, 143-146.
Optim Sex Event Ratio Optimists :27 Male :30 Free :24 Min. :0.8310 Pessimists:31 Female:28 Breast:20 1st Qu.:0.9447 Back :14 Median :0.9965 Mean :0.9943 3rd Qu.:1.0437 Max. :1.1160
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