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Adaptive optimal two-stage designs for clinical trials with one or two arms. For details on the core theoretical background, see:

Pilz M, Kunzmann K, Herrmann C, Rauch G, Kieser M. A variational approach to optimal two-stage designs. Statistics in Medicine. 2019;38(21):4159–4171.


Install the latest CRAN release via


and the development version directly from GitHub with:



The documentation is hosted at

Validation Report

We provide an extensive validation report for adoptr which is implemented using the bookdown package. The sources are available at and the last build version is hosted at

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adoptr documentation built on June 22, 2024, 9:21 a.m.