data-type: Apache Arrow data types

data-typeR Documentation

Apache Arrow data types

Description

These functions create type objects corresponding to Arrow types. Use them when defining a schema() or as inputs to other types, like struct. Most of these functions don't take arguments, but a few do.

Usage

int8()

int16()

int32()

int64()

uint8()

uint16()

uint32()

uint64()

float16()

halffloat()

float32()

float()

float64()

boolean()

bool()

utf8()

large_utf8()

binary()

large_binary()

fixed_size_binary(byte_width)

string()

date32()

date64()

time32(unit = c("ms", "s"))

time64(unit = c("ns", "us"))

duration(unit = c("s", "ms", "us", "ns"))

null()

timestamp(unit = c("s", "ms", "us", "ns"), timezone = "")

decimal(precision, scale)

decimal128(precision, scale)

decimal256(precision, scale)

struct(...)

list_of(type)

large_list_of(type)

fixed_size_list_of(type, list_size)

map_of(key_type, item_type, .keys_sorted = FALSE)

Arguments

byte_width

byte width for FixedSizeBinary type.

unit

For time/timestamp types, the time unit. time32() can take either "s" or "ms", while time64() can be "us" or "ns". timestamp() can take any of those four values.

timezone

For timestamp(), an optional time zone string.

precision

For decimal(), decimal128(), and decimal256() the number of significant digits the arrow decimal type can represent. The maximum precision for decimal128() is 38 significant digits, while for decimal256() it is 76 digits. decimal() will use it to choose which type of decimal to return.

scale

For decimal(), decimal128(), and decimal256() the number of digits after the decimal point. It can be negative.

...

For struct(), a named list of types to define the struct columns

type

For list_of(), a data type to make a list-of-type

list_size

list size for FixedSizeList type.

key_type, item_type

For MapType, the key and item types.

.keys_sorted

Use TRUE to assert that keys of a MapType are sorted.

Details

A few functions have aliases:

  • utf8() and string()

  • float16() and halffloat()

  • float32() and float()

  • bool() and boolean()

  • When called inside an arrow function, such as schema() or cast(), double() also is supported as a way of creating a float64()

date32() creates a datetime type with a "day" unit, like the R Date class. date64() has a "ms" unit.

uint32 (32 bit unsigned integer), uint64 (64 bit unsigned integer), and int64 (64-bit signed integer) types may contain values that exceed the range of R's integer type (32-bit signed integer). When these arrow objects are translated to R objects, uint32 and uint64 are converted to double ("numeric") and int64 is converted to bit64::integer64. For int64 types, this conversion can be disabled (so that int64 always yields a bit64::integer64 object) by setting options(arrow.int64_downcast = FALSE).

decimal128() creates a Decimal128Type. Arrow decimals are fixed-point decimal numbers encoded as a scalar integer. The precision is the number of significant digits that the decimal type can represent; the scale is the number of digits after the decimal point. For example, the number 1234.567 has a precision of 7 and a scale of 3. Note that scale can be negative.

As an example, decimal128(7, 3) can exactly represent the numbers 1234.567 and -1234.567 (encoded internally as the 128-bit integers 1234567 and -1234567, respectively), but neither 12345.67 nor 123.4567.

decimal128(5, -3) can exactly represent the number 12345000 (encoded internally as the 128-bit integer 12345), but neither 123450000 nor 1234500. The scale can be thought of as an argument that controls rounding. When negative, scale causes the number to be expressed using scientific notation and power of 10.

decimal256() creates a Decimal256Type, which allows for higher maximum precision. For most use cases, the maximum precision offered by Decimal128Type is sufficient, and it will result in a more compact and more efficient encoding.

decimal() creates either a Decimal128Type or a Decimal256Type depending on the value for precision. If precision is greater than 38 a Decimal256Type is returned, otherwise a Decimal128Type.

Use decimal128() or decimal256() as the names are more informative than decimal().

Value

An Arrow type object inheriting from DataType.

See Also

dictionary() for creating a dictionary (factor-like) type.

Examples

bool()
struct(a = int32(), b = double())
timestamp("ms", timezone = "CEST")
time64("ns")

# Use the cast method to change the type of data contained in Arrow objects.
# Please check the documentation of each data object class for details.
my_scalar <- Scalar$create(0L, type = int64()) # int64
my_scalar$cast(timestamp("ns")) # timestamp[ns]

my_array <- Array$create(0L, type = int64()) # int64
my_array$cast(timestamp("s", timezone = "UTC")) # timestamp[s, tz=UTC]

my_chunked_array <- chunked_array(0L, 1L) # int32
my_chunked_array$cast(date32()) # date32[day]

# You can also use `cast()` in an Arrow dplyr query.
if (requireNamespace("dplyr", quietly = TRUE)) {
  library(dplyr, warn.conflicts = FALSE)
  arrow_table(mtcars) %>%
    transmute(
      col1 = cast(cyl, string()),
      col2 = cast(cyl, int8())
    ) %>%
    compute()
}

arrow documentation built on Dec. 6, 2022, 5:10 p.m.