1. Getting Started: briskaR demonstration

Workflow in briskaR

This vignette explains how to use the briskaR package.

The R package briskaR offers a generic framework for the simulation of spatially-explicit exposure-hazard model for ecotoxicological studies.

The modeling framework has four main components:

  1. Landscape: a set of sources (e.g., polygons of GM fields) and a set of receptors (e.g., lines, points or polygons of host plant areas),
  2. Contaminant in the environment: a set of raster maps of concentration of pollen in space and time. The dispersal of contaminants is modeled as a convolution between the emitting functions of GM-pollen from sources and the dispersal kernel. This component also includes the deposition, adherence and loss processes of pollen on leaves, which drive the temporal dynamics of exposure to Bt toxin.
  3. Exposed individuals: the location of Non-Target Lepidoptera individuals in the landscape and their phenology. It may include a temperature growth development model.
  4. Ecotoxicology: the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models (TK-TD) describe (i) the toxicokinetic part describing the temporal dynamics of the internal concentration of the contaminant, that is a proxy of internal concentration to be further used for address lethal and sub-lethal effects, and (ii) the toxicodynamic part describing the impact of the toxicokinetic latent-variables on the fitness of individuals, lethal or sublethal.

A simulation run is divided in 7 steps:

  1. Landscape
  2. Source: landscape patches of GM field locations
  3. Host: landscape patches of potential Non-Target Lepidoptera laying sites
  4. Dispersal
  5. Kernel: probability distribution of pollen dispersal for each GM patches
  6. Convolution
  7. Emission profile: time profile of emission of pollen for each maize unit
  8. Convolution of dispersal kernel with emission profile
  9. Deposition: adherence of pollen on leaves ; loss of pollen due to rain washing of leaves
  10. Habitat
  11. Location: Laying site of Non-Target Lepidoptera
  12. Emergence: Date of emergence of larvae
  13. Phenology
  14. Development: dynamics of larvae along time: emergence, survival and reproduction
  15. Exposure
  16. Overlapping: exposure of larvae time-line to pollen deposition
  17. Damage
  18. Survival: effect of Bt-toxin exposure on larval survival
  19. Reproduction: effect of Bt-toxin exposure on reproduction
knitr::opts_chunk$set(fig.height = 6,
                      fig.width = 6,
                      fig.align = "center")
# 1. Load the main package
library("briskaR")
## Set briskaR working intern projection to LAMBERT 93 (default)
# briskaRSetInternProjection(LAMBERT_93)

# 2. Load 'ggplot2' for plotting objects. Not include in the package
# 3. load 'sf' for extra function on shapefiles
# 4. load 'raster' for extra function on raster
library("ggplot2")
library("sf")
library("raster")
library("sp") # plotting require this package
library("dplyr")

Landscape

data("sfMaize65")

# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
ggplot() + theme_minimal() +
  scale_fill_manual(values = c("grey", "orange"),
                    name = "Maize") +
  geom_sf(data = sfMaize65,
          aes(fill = as.factor(maize)))
sfMaize65$maize_GM<-sfMaize65$maize*c(0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0)
# Random 20% are GM field
sfMaize65$maize_GM <- sfMaize65$maize * rbinom(n = nrow(sfMaize65), size = 1 , prob = 0.2)
# filter table to have only GM fields
sfMaize65_GM <- sfMaize65[sfMaize65$maize_GM == 1,]

## PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
plt_GM <- ggplot() + theme_minimal() +
  scale_fill_manual(values = c("grey", "red"),
                    name = "GM maize") +
  geom_sf(data = sfMaize65,
          aes(fill = as.factor(maize_GM))) 
plt_GM +
  geom_sf_text(data = sfMaize65_GM,
                aes(label = label))

Before proceding the dispersal, we can add a buffer around the landscape. A good approach would be to define sources and receptors at this step in order to embedded all area within the square frame. The eposure is going to be computed over this square frame.

squareFrame_sfMaize65 <- st_squared_geometry(list(sfMaize65), buffer = 200) 

# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
plt_GM +
  geom_sf(data = squareFrame_sfMaize65, fill = NA)
stack_dispersal <- brk_dispersal(sfMaize65_GM,
                                 size_raster = 2^8,
                                 kernel = "geometric",
                                 kernel.options = list("a" =  -2.63),
                                 squared_frame = squareFrame_sfMaize65)

# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
raster::plot(stack_dispersal[[1:6]])

Emission

brk_emission <- function(sf, # geometry on which we applied the pollen emission pattern
                        keyTime,
                        key, # name of the column which is going to be created
                        FUN # a function of timeline?
    ){
      if("stackTimeline" %in% colnames(sf)) {
        stop("Please rename column 'stackTimeline' in sf object.")
      }
      # CREATE NEW COLUMN
      sf[["key_temp"]] <- lapply(1:nrow(sf), FUN)
      # check length with timeline
      if(all(sapply(sf[[keyTime]], length) != sapply(sf[["key_temp"]], length))){
        stop(paste0("element within list returned by FUN' has not the same length as list element of '", keyTime, "' column"))
      }
      # ADD StackTimeLine
      stackTimeline = sort(unique(do.call("c", sf[[keyTime]])))

      sf[[key]] = lapply(1:nrow(sf), function(i){
        index_matching = match(sf[[keyTime]][[i]], stackTimeline)
        res = rep(0,length(stackTimeline))
        res[index_matching] = sf[["key_temp"]][[i]]
        return(res)
      })
      # /!\ REPLACE timeline
      sf[[keyTime]] = lapply(1:nrow(sf), function(i) stackTimeline)
      warning(paste("The column variable", keyTime, "may have changed"))
      # remove "key_temp"
      sf[["key_temp"]] = NULL

  return(sf)
}

Emission, Exposure, and then individuals developement, migration and so need a time line. This is done using the function brk_timeline as follow:

sfMaize65_GM_Pollen <- brk_timeline(sf = sfMaize65_GM,
                                     key = "timeline",
                                     from = as.Date("01-07-2018", format = "%d-%m-%y"),
                                     to = as.Date("01-09-2018", format = "%d-%m-%y"),
                                     by = "days")
# Profile of emission:
data("maize.proportion_pollen")
graphics::plot(maize.proportion_pollen, type= "l")

funTimePollen <- function(time){
  density = runif(1, 7, 11)
  pollen = rgamma(1, shape = 1.6, scale = 1 / (2 * 10 ^ -7))
  nbr_days = length(time)
  deb = sample(1:(nbr_days - length(maize.proportion_pollen)), 1)
  end = (deb + length(maize.proportion_pollen) - 1)
  pollen_emission <- rep(0, nbr_days)
  pollen_emission[deb:end] <- as.numeric(pollen * density * maize.proportion_pollen)
  return(pollen_emission)
}

# ADD Column EMISSION To 
sfMaize65_GM_Pollen <- brk_emission(sf = sfMaize65_GM_Pollen,
                                    keyTime = "timeline", # Length of the reference timeline
                                    key = "EMISSION", # Name of the new column
                                    # function over each line of sf
                                    FUN = function(i){
                                          funTimePollen(sfMaize65_GM_Pollen$timeline[[i]])
                                    })

Deposition

stackTimeline = seq(from = min(do.call("c", sfMaize65_GM_Pollen[["timeline"]])),
                    to = max(do.call("c", sfMaize65_GM_Pollen[["timeline"]])),
                    by = "days")

stack_exposure <- brk_exposure(stack_dispersal,
                               sfMaize65_GM_Pollen,
                               key = "EMISSION", # Name of the new column
                               keyTime = "timeline", # Length of the reference timeline
                               loss = 0.1,
                               beta = 0.2,
                               quiet = TRUE)
# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
raster::plot(stack_exposure[[1:6]])

Plot of exposure out of GM fields

# A MULTIPOLYGON OUT OF GM FIELDS
sfMaize65_outGM <- st_sf(geometry = st_difference(x = st_geometry(squareFrame_sfMaize65),
                                                  y = st_union(st_geometry(sfMaize65_GM))))

# POINTS OUT OF GM FIELDS
gridPOINT_squareFrame <- st_make_grid(squareFrame_sfMaize65, n = 30, what = "centers") # grid n x n !!
gridPOINT_outGM <- st_sf(geometry = st_intersection(x = st_geometry(gridPOINT_squareFrame),
                                                    y = st_union(st_geometry(sfMaize65_outGM))))

# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
ggplot() + theme_minimal() +
  geom_sf(data = sfMaize65_outGM, fill = "grey30") +
  geom_sf(data = gridPOINT_outGM) # point out of GM field
# Create raster
df_outGM = as.data.frame(raster::extract(x = stack_exposure,
                                         y =  sf::as_Spatial(gridPOINT_outGM)))
#colnames(df_outGM) = paste0("Time_", gsub("-", "\\1", stackTimeline))

sf_outGM = st_as_sf(geometry = st_geometry(gridPOINT_outGM), df_outGM)

# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
ggplot() + theme_minimal() +
  labs(title = paste("Exposure at", colnames(df_outGM)[40])) +
  scale_color_continuous(low = "green", high = "red",
                         trans = "log", name = "log scaled") +
  geom_sf(data = sf_outGM,
          aes(color = df_outGM[,40]))

Individuals

Receptor area

First of all is to define the receptor area.

We can take any set of place within the area where exposure has been computed. A good way is to consider both receptor and source at the beginning in order to embed both in squareFrame

# Margins around each fields
sfMaize65_receptor = st_multibuffer(sfMaize65_GM,
                                    dist = rep(100, nrow(sfMaize65_GM)))

# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
plt_GMreceptor <-
  ggplot() + theme_minimal() +
    geom_sf(data = sfMaize65_GM,
            fill = "red") +
    geom_sf(data = sfMaize65_receptor,
            fill = "#669900")
plt_GMreceptor

Phenology

Time-space location of first individuals

# 1. Number of site for the first generation
nbrSite = 100
# 2. Set eggs
sfLarvae <- brk_newPoints(sf = sfMaize65_receptor, size = nbrSite) # size = number of sites

# PLOT ------------------------------------------------------------------------
plt_GMreceptor +
  geom_sf(data = sfLarvae)

Lifespan of larvae

DateEmergence = sample(seq(as.Date("01-07-2018", format = "%d-%m-%y"),
                           as.Date("01-09-2018", format = "%d-%m-%y"), by = "days"),
                      size = nbrSite,
                      replace = TRUE)

sfLarvae = brk_timeline( sf = sfLarvae,
                         key = "Date",
                         from = DateEmergence,
                         to  =  DateEmergence + 20,
                         by  = "days")

Ecotoxicology

Exposure

First step is to recover the time line of emission.

stackTimelineEMISSION = sort(unique(do.call("c", sfMaize65_GM_Pollen[["timeline"]])))

Then we make matching the emission/deposition profile with host

exposureINDIVIDUAL <- brk_exposureMatch(stackRaster_exposure = stack_exposure,
                                        sf = sfLarvae,
                                        stackTimeline = stackTimelineEMISSION,
                                        keyTime = "Date",
                                        key = "EXPOSURE")

Damage

Finally we compute a Da

damageLethal = function(x,LC50, slope){
      return(1/(1+(x/LC50)^slope))
}

LC50DR = 451*10^4
slopeDR = -2.63

damageINDIVIDUAL <- exposureINDIVIDUAL %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(DAMAGE = lapply(EXPOSURE, function(expos){damageLethal(expos, LC50DR, slopeDR)}))
DFdamage = data.frame(
  DAMAGE = do.call("c", damageINDIVIDUAL[["DAMAGE"]]),
  Date = do.call("c", damageINDIVIDUAL[["Date"]]) ) %>%
      dplyr::group_by(Date) %>%
      dplyr::summarise(mean_DAMAGE = mean(DAMAGE, na.rm = TRUE),
                       q025_DAMAGE = quantile(DAMAGE, probs = 0.025, na.rm = TRUE),
                       q975_DAMAGE = quantile(DAMAGE, probs = 0.975, na.rm = TRUE),
                       min_DAMAGE = min(DAMAGE, na.rm = TRUE),
                       max_DAMAGE = max(DAMAGE, na.rm = TRUE))

minDateDAMAGE = data.frame(Date = do.call("c", damageINDIVIDUAL[["Date"]]))

ggplot() +
  theme_minimal() +
  labs(x = "Time", y = "Probability Distribution of Damage") +
  geom_line(data = DFdamage,
                 aes(x = Date, y = mean_DAMAGE), color = "red") +
  geom_ribbon(data = DFdamage,
              aes(x = Date, ymin = q025_DAMAGE, ymax = q975_DAMAGE), alpha = 0.5, color = NA, fill = "grey10") +
  geom_ribbon(data = DFdamage,
              aes(x = Date, ymin = min_DAMAGE, ymax = max_DAMAGE), alpha = 0.5, color = NA, fill = "grey90") 


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briskaR documentation built on Nov. 18, 2021, 9:07 a.m.