recode | R Documentation |

Recodes a numeric vector, character vector, or factor
according to simple recode specifications. `Recode`

is an alias for `recode`

that avoids name clashes
with packages, such as Hmisc, that have a `recode`

function.

```
recode(var, recodes, as.factor, as.numeric=TRUE, levels,
to.value="=", interval=":", separator=";")
Recode(...)
```

`var` |
numeric vector, character vector, or factor. |

`recodes` |
character string of recode specifications: see below. |

`as.factor` |
return a factor; default is |

`as.numeric` |
if |

`levels` |
an optional argument specifying the order of the levels in the returned factor; the default is to use the sort order of the level names. |

`to.value` |
The operator to separate old from new values, |

`interval` |
the operator used to denote numeric intervals, by default |

`separator` |
the character string used to separate recode specifications, by default |

`...` |
arguments to be passed to |

Recode specifications appear in a character string, separated by default by
semicolons (see the examples below), each of the form `input=output`

(where `=`

may be replaced by a non-default value of the
`to.value`

argument, e.g., `input -> output`

). Spaces may be
used for clarity.
If an input value satisfies more than one specification,
then the first (from left to right) applies.
If no specification is satisfied, then the input value is carried
over to the result. `NA`

is allowed on input and output.
Several recode specifications are supported:

- single value
For example,

`0=NA`

.- vector of values
For example,

`c(7, 8, 9) = 'high'`

.- range of values
For example,

`7:9 = 'C'`

. The special values`lo`

and`hi`

may appear in a range. For example,`lo:10=1`

.*Note:*`:`

is*not*the R sequence operator. In addition, you may not use`:`

with the`c`

function within a recode specification, so for example`c(1, 3, 5:7)`

will cause an error. The`:`

is the default value of the`recode`

`interval`

operator; a non-default value may be specified.`else`

everything that does not fit a previous specification. For example,

`else = NA`

. Note that`else`

matches*all*otherwise unspecified values on input, including`NA`

, and if present should appear last among the recode specifications.

Character data and factor levels on the left-hand side of a recode specification must be quoted. Thus,
e.g., `c(a, b, c) = 'low'`

is not allowed, and should be `c('a', 'b', 'c') = 'low'`

.
Similarly, the colon is reserved for numeric data, and, e.g., `c('a':'c') = 'low'`

is not allowed.
If the `var`

argument is a character variable with (some) values that are character representations of numbers, or a factor
with (some) levels that are numbers (e.g., `'12'`

or `'-2'`

), then these too must be quoted
and cannot be used with colons (e.g., `'15':'19' = '15 to 19'`

is not allowed, and could be
specified as `c('15', '16', '17', '18', '19') = '15 to 19'`

, assuming that all values are
the character representation of whole numbers).

If all of the output values are numeric, and if `as.factor`

is
`FALSE`

, then a numeric result is returned; if `var`

is a factor,
then by default so is the result.

a recoded vector of the same length as `var`

.

The factor levels may not contain the character strings in `to.value`

(by default `"="`

), interval (by default `":"`

), or `separator`

(by default `";"`

).

John Fox jfox@mcmaster.ca

Fox, J. and Weisberg, S. (2019)
*An R Companion to Applied Regression*, Third Edition, Sage.

`cut`

, `factor`

```
x <- rep(1:3, 3)
x
recode(x, "c(1, 2) = 'A';
else = 'B'")
Recode(x, "1~2 -> ':=1' // 3 -> ';=2'", to.value="->",
interval="~", separator="//")
```

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