Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

Recodes a numeric vector, character vector, or factor
according to simple recode specifications. `Recode`

is an alias for `recode`

that avoids name clashes
with packages, such as Hmisc, that have a `recode`

function.

1 2 3 |

`var` |
numeric vector, character vector, or factor. |

`recodes` |
character string of recode specifications: see below. |

`as.factor` |
return a factor; default is |

`as.numeric` |
if |

`levels` |
an optional argument specifying the order of the levels in the returned factor; the default is to use the sort order of the level names. |

`...` |
arguments to be passed to |

Recode specifications appear in a character string, separated by
semicolons (see the examples below), of the form `input=output`

.
If an input value satisfies more than one specification,
then the first (from left to right) applies.
If no specification is satisfied, then the input value is carried
over to the result. `NA`

is allowed on input and output.
Several recode specifications are supported:

- single value
For example,

`0=NA`

.- vector of values
For example,

`c(7,8,9)='high'`

.- range of values
For example,

`7:9='C'`

. The special values`lo`

and`hi`

may appear in a range. For example,`lo:10=1`

.*Note:*`:`

is*not*the R sequence operator. In addition, you may not use`:`

with the`c`

function within a recode specification, so for example`c(1, 3, 5:7)`

will cause an error.`else`

everything that does not fit a previous specification. For example,

`else=NA`

. Note that`else`

matches*all*otherwise unspecified values on input, including`NA`

.

Character data and factor levels on the left-hand side of a recode specification must be quoted. Thus,
e.g., `c(a, b, c) = 'low'`

is not allowed, and should be `c('a', 'b', 'c') = 'low'`

.
Similarly, the colon is reserved for numeric data, and, e.g., `c('a':'c') = 'low'`

is not allowed.
If the `var`

argument is a character variable with (some) values that are composed of numerals, or a factor
with (some) levels that are numerals (e.g., `'12'`

or `'-2'`

), then these too must be quoted
and cannot be used with colons (e.g., `'15':'19' = '15 to 19'`

is not allowed, and could be
specified as `c('15', '16', '17', '18', '19') = '15 to 19'`

, assuming that all values are
the character representation of whole numbers).

If all of the output values are numeric, and if `as.factor`

is
`FALSE`

, then a numeric result is returned; if `var`

is a factor,
then by default so is the result.

a recoded vector of the same length as `var`

.

John Fox jfox@mcmaster.ca

Fox, J. and Weisberg, S. (2019)
*An R Companion to Applied Regression*, Third Edition, Sage.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 |

```
[1] 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
[1] "A" "A" "B" "A" "A" "B" "A" "A" "B"
[1] "A" "A" "B" "A" "A" "B" "A" "A" "B"
```

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