Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note References Examples

Testing the symmetry of a numeric repeated measurements variable in a complete block design.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 | ```
## S3 method for class 'formula'
sign_test(formula, data, subset = NULL, ...)
## S3 method for class 'SymmetryProblem'
sign_test(object, ...)
## S3 method for class 'formula'
wilcoxsign_test(formula, data, subset = NULL, ...)
## S3 method for class 'SymmetryProblem'
wilcoxsign_test(object, zero.method = c("Pratt", "Wilcoxon"), ...)
## S3 method for class 'formula'
friedman_test(formula, data, subset = NULL, ...)
## S3 method for class 'SymmetryProblem'
friedman_test(object, ...)
## S3 method for class 'formula'
quade_test(formula, data, subset = NULL, ...)
## S3 method for class 'SymmetryProblem'
quade_test(object, ...)
``` |

`formula` |
a formula of the form |

`data` |
an optional data frame containing the variables in the model formula. |

`subset` |
an optional vector specifying a subset of observations to be used. Defaults
to |

`object` |
an object inheriting from class |

`zero.method` |
a character, the method used to handle zeros: either |

`...` |
further arguments to be passed to |

`sign_test`

, `wilcoxsign_test`

, `friedman_test`

and
`quade_test`

provide the sign test, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the
Friedman test, the Page test and the Quade test. A general description of
these methods is given by Hollander and Wolfe (1999).

The null hypothesis of symmetry is tested. The response variable and the
measurement conditions are given by `y`

and `x`

, respectively, and
`block`

is a factor where each level corresponds to exactly one subject
with repeated measurements. For `sign_test`

and `wilcoxsign_test`

,
formulae of the form `y ~ x | block`

and `y ~ x`

are allowed. The
latter form is interpreted as `y`

is the first and `x`

the second
measurement on the same subject.

If `x`

is an ordered factor, the default scores, `1:nlevels(x)`

, can
be altered using the `scores`

argument (see `symmetry_test`

);
this argument can also be used to coerce nominal factors to class
`"ordered"`

. In this case, a linear-by-linear association test is
computed and the direction of the alternative hypothesis can be specified
using the `alternative`

argument. For the Friedman test, this extension
was given by Page (1963) and is known as the Page test.

For `wilcoxsign_test`

, the default method of handling zeros
(`zero.method = "Pratt"`

), due to Pratt (1959), first rank-transforms the
absolute differences (including zeros) and then discards the ranks
corresponding to the zero-differences. The proposal by Wilcoxon (1949, p. 6)
first discards the zero-differences and then rank-transforms the remaining
absolute differences (`zero.method = "Wilcoxon"`

).

The conditional null distribution of the test statistic is used to obtain
*p*-values and an asymptotic approximation of the exact distribution is
used by default (`distribution = "asymptotic"`

). Alternatively, the
distribution can be approximated via Monte Carlo resampling or computed
exactly for univariate two-sample problems by setting `distribution`

to
`"approximate"`

or `"exact"`

respectively. See
`asymptotic`

, `approximate`

and `exact`

for details.

An object inheriting from class `"IndependenceTest"`

.

Starting with coin version 1.0-16, the `zero.method`

argument
replaced the (now removed) `ties.method`

argument. The current default
is `zero.method = "Pratt"`

whereas earlier versions had
`ties.method = "HollanderWolfe"`

, which is equivalent to
`zero.method = "Wilcoxon"`

.

Hollander, M. and Wolfe, D. A. (1999). *Nonparametric Statistical
Methods*, Second Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Page, E. B. (1963). Ordered hypotheses for multiple treatments: a
significance test for linear ranks. *Journal of the American Statistical
Association* **58**(301), 216–230. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1963.10500843

Pratt, J. W. (1959). Remarks on zeros and ties in the Wilcoxon signed rank
procedures. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*
**54**(287), 655–667. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1959.10501526

Quade, D. (1979). Using weighted rankings in the analysis of complete blocks
with additive block effects. *Journal of the American Statistical
Association* **74**(367), 680–683. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1979.10481670

Wilcoxon, F. (1949). *Some Rapid Approximate Statistical Procedures*.
New York: American Cyanamid Company.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 | ```
## Example data from ?wilcox.test
y1 <- c(1.83, 0.50, 1.62, 2.48, 1.68, 1.88, 1.55, 3.06, 1.30)
y2 <- c(0.878, 0.647, 0.598, 2.05, 1.06, 1.29, 1.06, 3.14, 1.29)
## One-sided exact sign test
(st <- sign_test(y1 ~ y2, distribution = "exact",
alternative = "greater"))
midpvalue(st) # mid-p-value
## One-sided exact Wilcoxon signed-rank test
(wt <- wilcoxsign_test(y1 ~ y2, distribution = "exact",
alternative = "greater"))
statistic(wt, type = "linear")
midpvalue(wt) # mid-p-value
## Comparison with R's wilcox.test() function
wilcox.test(y1, y2, paired = TRUE, alternative = "greater")
## Data with explicit group and block information
dta <- data.frame(y = c(y1, y2), x = gl(2, length(y1)),
block = factor(rep(seq_along(y1), 2)))
## For two samples, the sign test is equivalent to the Friedman test...
sign_test(y ~ x | block, data = dta, distribution = "exact")
friedman_test(y ~ x | block, data = dta, distribution = "exact")
## ...and the signed-rank test is equivalent to the Quade test
wilcoxsign_test(y ~ x | block, data = dta, distribution = "exact")
quade_test(y ~ x | block, data = dta, distribution = "exact")
## Comparison of three methods ("round out", "narrow angle", and "wide angle")
## for rounding first base.
## Hollander and Wolfe (1999, p. 274, Tab. 7.1)
rounding <- data.frame(
times = c(5.40, 5.50, 5.55,
5.85, 5.70, 5.75,
5.20, 5.60, 5.50,
5.55, 5.50, 5.40,
5.90, 5.85, 5.70,
5.45, 5.55, 5.60,
5.40, 5.40, 5.35,
5.45, 5.50, 5.35,
5.25, 5.15, 5.00,
5.85, 5.80, 5.70,
5.25, 5.20, 5.10,
5.65, 5.55, 5.45,
5.60, 5.35, 5.45,
5.05, 5.00, 4.95,
5.50, 5.50, 5.40,
5.45, 5.55, 5.50,
5.55, 5.55, 5.35,
5.45, 5.50, 5.55,
5.50, 5.45, 5.25,
5.65, 5.60, 5.40,
5.70, 5.65, 5.55,
6.30, 6.30, 6.25),
methods = factor(rep(1:3, 22),
labels = c("Round Out", "Narrow Angle", "Wide Angle")),
block = gl(22, 3)
)
## Asymptotic Friedman test
friedman_test(times ~ methods | block, data = rounding)
## Parallel coordinates plot
with(rounding, {
matplot(t(matrix(times, ncol = 3, byrow = TRUE)),
type = "l", lty = 1, col = 1, ylab = "Time", xlim = c(0.5, 3.5),
axes = FALSE)
axis(1, at = 1:3, labels = levels(methods))
axis(2)
})
## Where do the differences come from?
## Wilcoxon-Nemenyi-McDonald-Thompson test (Hollander and Wolfe, 1999, p. 295)
## Note: all pairwise comparisons
(st <- symmetry_test(times ~ methods | block, data = rounding,
ytrafo = function(data)
trafo(data, numeric_trafo = rank_trafo,
block = rounding$block),
xtrafo = mcp_trafo(methods = "Tukey")))
## Simultaneous test of all pairwise comparisons
## Wide Angle vs. Round Out differ (Hollander and Wolfe, 1999, p. 296)
pvalue(st, method = "single-step") # subset pivotality is violated
## Strength Index of Cotton
## Hollander and Wolfe (1999, p. 286, Tab. 7.5)
cotton <- data.frame(
strength = c(7.46, 7.17, 7.76, 8.14, 7.63,
7.68, 7.57, 7.73, 8.15, 8.00,
7.21, 7.80, 7.74, 7.87, 7.93),
potash = ordered(rep(c(144, 108, 72, 54, 36), 3),
levels = c(144, 108, 72, 54, 36)),
block = gl(3, 5)
)
## One-sided asymptotic Page test
friedman_test(strength ~ potash | block, data = cotton, alternative = "greater")
## One-sided approximative (Monte Carlo) Page test
friedman_test(strength ~ potash | block, data = cotton, alternative = "greater",
distribution = approximate(nresample = 10000))
## Data from Quade (1979, p. 683)
dta <- data.frame(
y = c(52, 45, 38,
63, 79, 50,
45, 57, 39,
53, 51, 43,
47, 50, 56,
62, 72, 49,
49, 52, 40),
x = factor(rep(LETTERS[1:3], 7)),
b = factor(rep(1:7, each = 3))
)
## Approximative (Monte Carlo) Friedman test
## Quade (1979, p. 683)
friedman_test(y ~ x | b, data = dta,
distribution = approximate(nresample = 10000)) # chi^2 = 6.000
## Approximative (Monte Carlo) Quade test
## Quade (1979, p. 683)
(qt <- quade_test(y ~ x | b, data = dta,
distribution = approximate(nresample = 10000))) # W = 8.157
## Comparison with R's quade.test() function
quade.test(y ~ x | b, data = dta)
## quade.test() uses an F-statistic
b <- nlevels(qt@statistic@block)
A <- sum(qt@statistic@y^2)
B <- sum(statistic(qt, type = "linear")^2) / b
(b - 1) * B / (A - B) # F = 8.3765
``` |

```
Loading required package: survival
Exact Sign Test
data: y by x (pos, neg)
stratified by block
Z = 1.6667, p-value = 0.08984
alternative hypothesis: true mu is greater than 0
[1] 0.0546875
Exact Wilcoxon-Pratt Signed-Rank Test
data: y by x (pos, neg)
stratified by block
Z = 2.0732, p-value = 0.01953
alternative hypothesis: true mu is greater than 0
pos 40
[1] 0.01660156
Wilcoxon signed rank test
data: y1 and y2
V = 40, p-value = 0.01953
alternative hypothesis: true location shift is greater than 0
Exact Sign Test
data: y by x (pos, neg)
stratified by block
Z = 1.6667, p-value = 0.1797
alternative hypothesis: true mu is not equal to 0
Exact Friedman Test
data: y by x (1, 2)
stratified by block
chi-squared = 2.7778, p-value = 0.1797
Exact Wilcoxon-Pratt Signed-Rank Test
data: y by x (pos, neg)
stratified by block
Z = 2.0732, p-value = 0.03906
alternative hypothesis: true mu is not equal to 0
Exact Quade Test
data: y by x (1, 2)
stratified by block
chi-squared = 4.2982, p-value = 0.03906
Asymptotic Friedman Test
data: times by
methods (Round Out, Narrow Angle, Wide Angle)
stratified by block
chi-squared = 11.143, df = 2, p-value = 0.003805
Asymptotic General Symmetry Test
data: times by
methods (Round Out, Narrow Angle, Wide Angle)
stratified by block
maxT = 3.2404, p-value = 0.003332
alternative hypothesis: two.sided
Narrow Angle - Round Out 0.62392183
Wide Angle - Round Out 0.00343218
Wide Angle - Narrow Angle 0.05384620
Warning message:
In .local(object, ...) : p-values may be incorrect due to violation
of the subset pivotality condition
Asymptotic Page Test
data: strength by
potash (144 < 108 < 72 < 54 < 36)
stratified by block
Z = 2.6558, p-value = 0.003956
alternative hypothesis: greater
Approximative Page Test
data: strength by
potash (144 < 108 < 72 < 54 < 36)
stratified by block
Z = 2.6558, p-value = 0.0033
alternative hypothesis: greater
Approximative Friedman Test
data: y by x (A, B, C)
stratified by b
chi-squared = 6, p-value = 0.0491
Approximative Quade Test
data: y by x (A, B, C)
stratified by b
chi-squared = 8.1571, p-value = 0.0055
Quade test
data: y and x and b
Quade F = 8.3765, num df = 2, denom df = 12, p-value = 0.005284
[1] 8.376528
```

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