Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) References See Also Examples

Given a set of p-values and their discrete cumulative distribution functions (CDF), returns p-values adjusted using one of several methods.

1 2 3 4 | ```
p.discrete.adjust(p, pCDF, method = p.discrete.adjust.methods, cutoff = 1, n = length(p))
p.discrete.adjust.methods
## c("BH", "BL", "BHmidp", "BLmidp", "DBH", "DBL", "none")
``` |

`p` |
numeric vector of p-values (possibly with |

`pCDF` |
a list of numeric vectors, where each vector is the vector of atoms (in ascending order) of the step function that is the CDF of the corresponding p-value. |

`method` |
correction method. See details. |

`cutoff` |
an upper limit for the p-values to be adjusted; set this (to non-default) if p-values above the cutoff may be viewed as corresponding to null hypotheses. |

`n` |
number of comparisons, must be at least length(p). |

The adjustment methods include the step-up Benjamini & Hochberg (1995) procedure on mid P-values ("BHmidp"); the step-up procedure of Heyse (2011, "DBH"); the step-down Benjamini & Liu (1999) procedure on mid P-values ("BLmidp"); the step-down procedure of Heller & Gur (2011, "DBL"). For completeness, the step-up Benjamini & Hochberg (1995) procedure ("BH") and the step-down Benjamini & Liu (1999) procedure ("BL") are also provided.

For discrete tests, the procedures "BHmidP" and "BLmidP" have closer nominal FDR levels than "BH" and "BL" respectively. Moroever, when the p-values are independent procedure "DBL" has proven FDR control, along with procedures "BH" and "BL". For power comparisons across methods, see Heller & Gur (2011).

The `cutoff`

can be set to a value between 0 and 1, usually 0.05 is a good conservative guess that will aleviate the computational burden without power loss. All unadjusted p-values above this value will not be adjusted, and will receive a default value of 1 in the output vector. The purpose of `cutoff`

is to reduce substaintially computational costs in very large number of tests.

`n`

can be set to a value larger than `length(p)`

which means the unobserved p-values are assumed to be equal to 1.

A numeric vector of the adjusted p-values (of the same length as `p`

).

The function structure and code is mainly based on the code in `p.adjust`

writen by R Development Core Team.
The `BH`

method is identical to the code in `p.adjust`

.

Ruth Heller, Hadas Gur and Shay Yaacoby.

Maintainer: Shay Yaacoby shay66@gmail.com

Benjamini, Y., and Hochberg, Y. (1995).Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing.
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series* B, **57**, 289–300.

Benjamini, Y., and Liu, W. (1999). A step-down multiple hypotheses testing procedure that controls the false discovery rate under independence.
*Statistical planning and inference*, **82**, 163–170.

Heller, R., and Gur, H. (2011). False discovery rate controlling procedures for discrete tests.
*arXiv:1112.4627v1* link.

Heyse, J. (2011). A false discovery rate procedure for categorical data.
*Resent Advances in Biostatistics: False Discovery Rates, Survival Analysis, and Related Topics*, 43–58.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 | ```
data(amnesia)
A11 <- amnesia$AmnesiaCases
A21 <- sum(amnesia$AllAdverseCases) - A11
A12 <- amnesia$AllAdverseCases - A11
A22 <- sum(amnesia$AllAdverseCases) - sum(amnesia$AmnesiaCases) - A12
## Entry j in each of the four vectors is the data for the test of no association
## between drug j and amnesia :
## Drug j Other Drugs
## Amnesia A11[j] A12[j] A1.[j]
## Other Adverse events A21[j] A22[j] A2.[j]
## n N-n N
## For example, the 2X2 contingency table to test the hypothesis of
## amensia adverse drug reaction in the drug "ZOPICLONE":
matrix(c(A11[2444], A21[2444], A12[2444], A22[2444]),nrow = 2)
A1. <- sum(amnesia$AmnesiaCases)
A2. <- sum(amnesia$AllAdverseCases) - A1.
n <- A11 + A12
k <- pmin(n,A1.)
pCDFlist <- list()
pvec <- numeric(nrow(amnesia))
## Calculation of the p-values and the p-values CDFs:
for (i in 1:nrow(amnesia))
{
x <- 0:k[i]
pCDFlist[[i]] <- dhyper(x ,A1., A2. ,n[i]) + phyper(x ,A1. ,A2. ,n[i] ,lower.tail = FALSE)
pCDFlist[[i]] <- rev(pCDFlist[[i]])
pvec[i] <- dhyper(A11[i] ,A1. ,A2. ,n[i]) + phyper(A11[i] ,A1. ,A2. ,n[i] ,lower.tail = FALSE)
}
pBH <- p.discrete.adjust(pvec, pCDFlist, method = "BH")
pBL <- p.discrete.adjust(pvec, pCDFlist, method = "BL")
pBHmidp <- p.discrete.adjust(pvec, pCDFlist, method = "BHmidp")
pBLmidp <- p.discrete.adjust(pvec, pCDFlist, method = "BLmidp")
pDBH <- p.discrete.adjust(pvec, pCDFlist, method = "DBH")
pDBL <- p.discrete.adjust(pvec, pCDFlist, method = "DBL")
## Number of rejected hypothesis at level 0.05:
q <- 0.05
sum(pBL <= q) ## 16
sum(pBLmidp <= q) ## 17
sum(pDBL <= q) ## 21
sum(pBH <= q) ## 24
sum(pBHmidp <= q) ## 25
sum(pDBH <= q) ## 27
## plotting:
o = order(pvec)
matplot(1:length(pvec), cbind(pvec[o], pBL[o], pBLmidp[o], pDBL[o], pBH[o], pBHmidp[o], pDBH[o]),
type = "l", lty = c(4,3,3,3,2,2,2),
col = c("#4735B2","#B25A00","#24B200","#106B99","#B25A00","#24B200","#106B99"),
xlim = c(1,100), xlab = "Rank", ylab = "Adjusted p-values")
abline(0.05,0,col = "grey")
legend("bottomright",legend=c("pvec-unadjusted","pBL","pBLmidp","pDBL","pBH","pBHmidp","pDBH"),
lty = c(4,3,3,3,2,2,2),
col = c("#4735B2","#B25A00","#24B200","#106B99","#B25A00","#24B200","#106B99"))
``` |

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