# vcov.gnm: Variance-covariance Matrix for Parameters in a Generalized... In gnm: Generalized Nonlinear Models

 vcov.gnm R Documentation

## Variance-covariance Matrix for Parameters in a Generalized Nonlinear Model

### Description

This method extracts or computes a variance-covariance matrix for use in approximate inference on estimable parameter combinations in a generalized nonlinear model.

### Usage

```## S3 method for class 'gnm'
vcov(object, dispersion = NULL, with.eliminate = FALSE, ...)
```

### Arguments

 `object` a model object of class `gnm`. `dispersion` the dispersion parameter for the fitting family. By default it is obtained from `object`. `with.eliminate` logical; should parts of the variance-covariance matrix corresponding to eliminated coefficients be computed? `...` as for `vcov`.

### Details

The resultant matrix does not itself necessarily contain variances and covariances, since `gnm` typically works with over-parameterized model representations in which parameters are not all identified. Rather, the resultant matrix is to be used as the kernel of quadratic forms which are the variances or covariances for estimable parameter combinations.

The matrix values are scaled by `dispersion`. If the dispersion is not specified, it is taken as `1` for the `binomial` and `Poisson` families, and otherwise estimated by the residual Chi-squared statistic divided by the residual degrees of freedom. The dispersion used is returned as an attribute of the matrix.

The dimensions of the matrix correspond to the non-eliminated coefficients of the `"gnm"` object. If ```use.eliminate = TRUE``` then setting can sometimes give appreciable speed gains; see `gnm` for details of the `eliminate` mechanism. The `use.eliminate` argument is currently ignored if the model has full rank.

### Value

A matrix with number of rows/columns equal to `length(coef(object))`. If there are eliminated coefficients and `use.eliminate = TRUE`, the matrix will have the following attributes:

 `covElim ` a matrix of covariances between the eliminated and non-eliminated parameters. `varElim ` a vector of variances corresponding to the eliminated parameters.

### Note

The `gnm` class includes generalized linear models, and it should be noted that the behaviour of `vcov.gnm` differs from that of `vcov.glm` whenever `any(is.na(coef(object)))` is `TRUE`. Whereas `vcov.glm` drops all rows and columns which correspond to `NA` values in `coef(object)`, `vcov.gnm` keeps those columns (which are full of zeros, since the `NA` represents a parameter which is fixed either by use of the `constrain` argument to `gnm` or by a convention to handle linear aliasing).

David Firth

### References

Turner, H and Firth, D (2005). Generalized nonlinear models in R: An overview of the gnm package. At https://cran.r-project.org

`getContrasts`, `se.gnm`

### Examples

```set.seed(1)
## Fit the "UNIDIFF" mobility model across education levels
unidiff <- gnm(Freq ~ educ*orig + educ*dest +
Mult(Exp(educ), orig:dest), family = poisson,
data = yaish, subset = (dest != 7))
## Examine the education multipliers (differences on the log scale):
ind <- pickCoef(unidiff, "[.]educ")
educMultipliers <- getContrasts(unidiff, rev(ind))
## Now get the same standard errors using a suitable set of
## quadratic forms, by calling vcov() directly:
cmat <- contr.sum(ind)
sterrs <- sqrt(diag(t(cmat)
%*% vcov(unidiff)[ind, ind]
%*% cmat))
all(sterrs == (educMultipliers\$SE)[-1]) ## TRUE
```

gnm documentation built on April 29, 2022, 5:06 p.m.