# igraph-minus: Delete vertices or edges from a graph In igraph: Network Analysis and Visualization

## Description

Delete vertices or edges from a graph

## Usage

 ```1 2``` ```## S3 method for class 'igraph' e1 - e2 ```

## Arguments

 `e1` Left argument, see details below. `e2` Right argument, see details below.

## Details

The minus operator (‘`-`’) can be used to remove vertices or edges from the graph. The operation performed is selected based on the type of the right hand side argument:

• If it is an igraph graph object, then the difference of the two graphs is calculated, see `difference`.

• If it is a numeric or character vector, then it is interpreted as a vector of vertex ids and the specified vertices will be deleted from the graph. Example:

```  g <- make_ring(10)
V(g)\$name <- letters[1:10]
g <- g - c("a", "b")```
• If `e2` is a vertex sequence (e.g. created by the `V` function), then these vertices will be deleted from the graph.

• If it is an edge sequence (e.g. created by the `E` function), then these edges will be deleted from the graph.

• If it is an object created with the `vertex` (or the `vertices`) function, then all arguments of `vertices` are concatenated and the result is interpreted as a vector of vertex ids. These vertices will be removed from the graph.

• If it is an object created with the `edge` (or the `edges`) function, then all arguments of `edges` are concatenated and then interpreted as edges to be removed from the graph. Example:

```  g <- make_ring(10)
V(g)\$name <- letters[1:10]
E(g)\$name <- LETTERS[1:10]
g <- g - edge("e|f")
g <- g - edge("H")```
• If it is an object created with the `path` function, then all `path` arguments are concatenated and then interpreted as a path along which edges will be removed from the graph. Example:

```  g <- make_ring(10)
V(g)\$name <- letters[1:10]
g <- g - path("a", "b", "c", "d")```

## Value

An igraph graph.

Other functions for manipulating graph structure: `+.igraph`, `add_edges`, `add_vertices`, `delete_edges`, `delete_vertices`, `edge`, `path`, `vertex`