# reciprocity: Reciprocity of graphs In igraph: Network Analysis and Visualization

## Description

Calculates the reciprocity of a directed graph.

## Usage

 `1` ```reciprocity(graph, ignore.loops = TRUE, mode = c("default", "ratio")) ```

## Arguments

 `graph` The graph object. `ignore.loops` Logical constant, whether to ignore loop edges. `mode` See below.

## Details

The measure of reciprocity defines the proportion of mutual connections, in a directed graph. It is most commonly defined as the probability that the opposite counterpart of a directed edge is also included in the graph. Or in adjacency matrix notation: sum(i, j, (A.*A')ij) / sum(i, j, Aij), where A.*A' is the element-wise product of matrix A and its transpose. This measure is calculated if the `mode` argument is `default`.

Prior to igraph version 0.6, another measure was implemented, defined as the probability of mutual connection between a vertex pair, if we know that there is a (possibly non-mutual) connection between them. In other words, (unordered) vertex pairs are classified into three groups: (1) not-connected, (2) non-reciprocaly connected, (3) reciprocally connected. The result is the size of group (3), divided by the sum of group sizes (2)+(3). This measure is calculated if `mode` is `ratio`.

## Value

A numeric scalar between zero and one.

## Author(s)

Tamas Nepusz [email protected] and Gabor Csardi [email protected]

## Examples

 ```1 2``` ```g <- sample_gnp(20, 5/20, directed=TRUE) reciprocity(g) ```

igraph documentation built on March 18, 2018, 1:24 p.m.