Introduction {#intro}

Here is a brief introduction into using RMarkdown. Markdown is a simple formatting syntax for authoring HTML, PDF, and MS Word documents. RMarkdown provides the flexibility of Markdown with the implementation of R input and output. For more details on using RMarkdown see


As you can see in the final PDF, the above comments are not printed. This can be hugely helpful for keeping notes for yourself right where you need them. I'll be using them to add some notes for you about the functionality in this package.

Line breaks, paragraphs, and spacing

Generally, it's useful to write each sentence (or part of a new sentence) on a new line. This aids in readability---for you writing, but also for your readers, who will appreciate short, succinct prose. Any text written in the line immediately following will be included in the same paragraph. You do not need to add a space after finishing a line. This will be added automatically.

If you want to start a new paragraph, all you need to do is hit enter/return twice before continuing writing. The empty line signals that the paragraph is over, and we should start a new one.

Be careful with your spacing in Markdown documents though. While whitespace largely is ignored, it does at times give Markdown signals as to how to proceed. For example, at the end of this line, I'm going to add several white spaces.
And then I'm going to continue.
As you will see in the final PDF, while the paragraph structure is maintained, the standard text justification is broken.

As a habit, try to keep everything left aligned whenever possible, especially as you type a new paragraph. In other words, there is no need to indent basic text in the Rmd document (in fact, it might cause your text to do funny things if you do).


If for some reason you need some extra space between paragraphs, you can use \vfill. You can force a new page with \newpage.



Normal in-text quotations are simple enough. Just "enclose the quotation in speech marks". \LaTeX\ will do the hard work of parsing out what is the start and end of the quote.

If you wish to include longer quotations as a block quote, just start a new paragraph with a > symbol preceding the first line.

This signals that the quotation should be indented from both sides. I can add sentences to the paragraph, and to conclude the block quotation...

I just start another paragraph. If you would like fancier block quotes, just raise this as an issue on GitHub.


It's easy to create a list. It can be unordered like

or it can be ordered like

  1. Item 1
  2. Item 2

Note that I intentionally mislabeled Item 2 as number 4.
Markdown automatically figures this out!
You can put any numbers in the list and it will create the list.
Check it out below.

To create a sublist, just indent the values a bit (at least four spaces or a tab).
(Here's one case where indentation is key!)

  1. Item 1
  2. Item 2
  3. Item 3
    • Item 3a
    • Item 3b


As you write, you might want to footnote something.^[The footnote will be in a smaller font and enumerated and placed appropriately.] Alternatively, you can specify the footnote yourself.[^2]

[^2]: And then write the text out at the bottom of the page/document.

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iheiddown documentation built on May 13, 2022, 9:06 a.m.