percentages | R Documentation |

The generic function `percentages`

and its methods
create one- or multidimensional tables of percentages. As such,
the function `percentages`

can be viewed as a convenience
interface to `prop.table`

. However, it also
allows to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals.

```
percentages(obj, ...)
## S3 method for class 'table'
percentages(obj,
by=NULL, which=NULL, se=FALSE, ci=FALSE, ci.level=.95, ...)
## S3 method for class 'formula'
percentages(obj,
data=parent.frame(), weights=NULL, ...)
## Default S3 method:
percentages(obj,
weights=NULL, ...)
## S3 method for class 'data.frame'
percentages(obj,
weights=NULL, ...)
## S3 method for class 'list'
percentages(obj,
weights=NULL, ...)
## S3 method for class 'percentage.table'
as.data.frame(x, ...)
## S3 method for class 'xpercentage.table'
as.data.frame(x, ...)
```

`obj` |
an object; a contingency table or a formula. If it is a formula, its left-hand side determines the factor or combination of factors for which percentages are computed while its right-hand side determines the factor or combination of factors that define the groups within which percentages are computed. |

`by` |
a character vector with the names of the factor variables that define the groups within which percentages are computed. Percentages sum to 100 within combination of levels of these factors. |

`which` |
a character vector with the names of the factor variables for which percentages are computed. |

`se` |
a logical value; determines whether standard errors are computed. |

`ci` |
a logical value; determines whether confidence intervals are computed. Note that the confidence intervals are for infinite (or very large) populations. |

`ci.level` |
a numerical value, the required confidence level of the confidence intervals. |

`data` |
a contingency table (an object that inherits from "table") or a data frame or an object coercable into a data frame. |

`weights` |
an optional vector of weights. Should be NULL or a numeric vector. |

`...` |
Further arguments passed on to the
"table" method of |

`x` |
an object coerced into a data frame. |

An array that inherits classes "percentage.table" and "table". If
`percentages`

was called with `se=TRUE`

or `ci=TRUE`

then the result additionally inherits class "xpercentage.table".

```
percentages(UCBAdmissions)
# Three equivalent ways to create the same table of conditional
# percentages
percentages(Admit~Gender+Dept,data=UCBAdmissions)
percentages(UCBAdmissions,by=c("Gender","Dept"))
percentages(UCBAdmissions,which="Admit")
# Percentage table as data frame
as.data.frame(percentages(Admit~Gender+Dept,data=UCBAdmissions))
# Standard errors and confidence intervals
percentages(Admit~Dept,data=UCBAdmissions,se=TRUE)
percentages(Admit~Dept,data=UCBAdmissions,ci=TRUE)
(p<- percentages(Admit~Dept,data=UCBAdmissions,ci=TRUE,se=TRUE))
# An extended table of percentages as data frame
as.data.frame(p)
# A table of percentages of a factor
percentages(iris$Species)
UCBA <- as.data.frame(UCBAdmissions)
percentages(UCBA$Admit,weights=UCBA$Freq)
percentages(UCBA,weights=UCBA$Freq)
```

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