# newmark: Newmark Method In pracma: Practical Numerical Math Functions

## Description

Newmark's is a method to solve higher-order differential equations without passing through the equivalent first-order system. It generalizes the so-called ‘leap-frog’ method. Here it is restricted to second-order equations.

## Usage

 1 newmark(f, t0, t1, y0, ..., N = 100, zeta = 0.25, theta = 0.5) 

## Arguments

 f function in the differential equation y'' = f(x, y, y'); defined as a function R \times R^2 \rightarrow R. t0, t1 start and end points of the interval. y0 starting values as row or column vector; y0 needs to be a vector of length 2, the first component representing y(t0), the second dy/dt(t0). N number of steps. zeta, theta two non-negative real numbers. ... Additional parameters to be passed to the function.

## Details

Solves second order differential equations using the Newmark method on an equispaced grid of N steps.

Function f must return a vector, whose elements hold the evaluation of f(t,y), of the same dimension as y0. Each row in the solution array Y corresponds to a time returned in t.

The method is ‘implicit’ unless zeta=theta=0, second order if theta=1/2 and first order accurate if theta!=1/2. theta>=1/2 ensures stability. The condition set theta=1/2; zeta=1/4 (the defaults) is a popular approach that is unconditionally stable, but introduces oscillatory spurious solutions on long time intervals. (For these simulations it is preferable to use theta>1/2 and zeta>(theta+1/2)^(1/2).)

No attempt is made to catch any errors in the root finding functions.

## Value

List with components t for grid (or ‘time’) points between t0 and t1, and y an n-by-2 matrix with solution variables in columns, i.e. each row contains one time stamp.

## Note

This is for demonstration purposes only; for real problems or applications please use ode23 or rk4sys.

## References

Quarteroni, A., R. Sacco, and F. Saleri (2007). Numerical Mathematics. Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

ode23, cranknic

## Examples

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 # Mathematical pendulum m l y'' + m g sin(y) = 0 pendel <- function(t, y) -sin(y[1]) sol <- newmark(pendel, 0, 4*pi, c(pi/4, 0)) ## Not run: plot(sol$t, sol$y[, 1], type="l", col="blue", xlab="Time", ylab="Elongation/Speed", main="Mathematical Pendulum") lines(sol$t, sol$y[, 2], col="darkgreen") grid() ## End(Not run) 

### Example output




pracma documentation built on Dec. 11, 2021, 9:57 a.m.