ensemble: Ensemble Forecasting of SDMs

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

Description

Make a Raster object with a weighted averaging over all predictions from several fitted model in a sdmModel object.

Usage

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## S4 method for signature 'sdmModels'
ensemble(x, newdata, filename="",setting,...)

Arguments

x

a sdmModels object

newdata

Raster* object or data.frame, can be either predictors or the results of the predict function

filename

character, output file name

setting

list, contains the parameters that are used in the ensemble procedure; see details

...

additional arguments passed to the predict function

Details

ensemble function uses the fitted models in an sdmModels object to generate an ensemble/consensus of predictions by individual models. Several methods do exist for this procedure, that are (or will be) implemented in this function, and can be defined in the method argument. A list can be introduced in the setting argument in which several parameters can be set including:

- method: specify which ensemble method should be used. Several methods are implemented including:

– 'unweighted': unweighted averaging/mean.

– 'weighted': weighted averaging.

– 'median': median.

– 'pa': mean of predicted presence-absence values (predicted probability of occurrences are first converted to presence-absence using a threshold, then they are averaged).

– 'mean-weighted': A two step mean that is when several replications are fitted for each modelling methods (e.g., through bootstrapping or cross-validation), using this method an unweighted mean is taken over the predicted values of different replications of each method (i.e., within model averaging), then a weighted mean is used to combine them into final ensemble values (i.e., between models averaging).

– 'mean-unweighted': Same as the previous one, but an unweighted mean is also used for the second step (instead of weighted mean).

– 'median-weighted': Same as the 'mean-weighted, but the median is used instead of unweighted mean.

– 'median-unweighted': another two-step method, median is used for the first step and unweighted mean is used for the second step.

– 'uncertainty' or 'entropy': this method generates the uncertainty among the models' predictions that can be interpreted as model-based uncertainty or inconsistency among different models. It ranges between 0 and 1, 0 means all the models predicted the same value (either presence or absence), and 1 referes to maximum uncertainy, e.g., half of the models predicted presence (or absence) and the other half predicted the oposite value.

- stat: if the method='weighted' is used, this specify which evaluation statistics can be used as weight in the weighted averaging procedure. Alternatively, one may directly introduce weights (see the next argument)

- weights: an optional numeric vector (with a length equal to the models that are successfully fitted) to specify the weights for weighted averaging procedure (if the method='weighted' is specified)

- id: specify the model IDs that should be considered in the ensemble procedure. If missing, all the models that are successfully fitted are considered.

- wtest: specify which test dataset ("training","test.dep","test.indep") should be used to extract the statistic (stat) values as weights (if a relevant method is specified)

- opt: If either of the thershold_based stats are selected, opt can be also specified to select one of the criteria for optimising the threshold. The possible value can be between 1 to 10 for "sp=se", "max(se+sp)", "min(cost)", "minROCdist", "max(kappa)", "max(ppv+npv)", "ppv=npv", "max(NMI)", "max(ccr)", "prevalence" criteria, respectively.

- power: default: 1, a numeric value to which the weights are raised. Greater value than 1 affects weighting scheme (for the methods e.g., "weighted") to increase the weights for the models with greater weight. For example, if weights are c(0.2,0.2,0.2,0.4), raising them to power 2 would be resulted to new weights as c(0.1428571,0.1428571, 0.1428571, 0.5714286) that causes greater influence of the models with greater performances to the ensemble output.

Value

- a Raster object if predictors is a Raster object

- a numeric vector if predictors is a data.frame object

Author(s)

Babak Naimi naimi.b@gmail.com

http://biogeoinformatics.org

References

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See Also

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Examples

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## Not run: 


file <- system.file("external/species.shp", package="sdm") # get the location of the species data

species <- shapefile(file) # read the shapefile

path <- system.file("external", package="sdm") # path to the folder contains the data

lst <- list.files(path=path,pattern='asc$',full.names = T) # list the name of the raster files 


# stack is a function in the raster package, to read/create a multi-layers raster dataset
preds <- stack(lst) # making a raster object

d <- sdmData(formula=Occurrence~., train=species, predictors=preds)

d

# fit the models (5 methods, and 10 replications using bootstrapping procedure):
m <- sdm(Occurrence~.,data=d,methods=c('rf','tree','fda','mars','svm'),
          replicatin='boot',n=10)
    
# ensemble using weighted averaging based on AUC statistic:    
p1 <- ensemble(m, newdata=preds, filename='ens.img',setting=list(method='weighted',stat='AUC'))
plot(p1)

# ensemble using weighted averaging based on TSS statistic
# and optimum threshold critesion 2 (i.e., Max(spe+sen)) :    
p2 <- ensemble(m, newdata=preds, filename='ens2.img',setting=list(method='weighted',
                                                                  stat='TSS',opt=2))
plot(p2)


## End(Not run)

sdm documentation built on April 30, 2020, 1:04 a.m.