# zerodist: find point pairs with equal spatial coordinates In sp: Classes and Methods for Spatial Data

 zerodist R Documentation

## find point pairs with equal spatial coordinates

### Description

find point pairs with equal spatial coordinates

### Usage

```
zerodist(obj, zero = 0.0, unique.ID = FALSE, memcmp = TRUE)
zerodist2(obj1, obj2, zero = 0.0, memcmp = TRUE)
remove.duplicates(obj, zero = 0.0, remove.second = TRUE, memcmp = TRUE)
```

### Arguments

 `obj` object of, or extending, class SpatialPoints `obj1` object of, or extending, class SpatialPoints `obj2` object of, or extending, class SpatialPoints `zero` distance values less than or equal to this threshold value are considered to have zero distance (default 0.0); units are those of the coordinates for projected data or unknown projection, or km if coordinates are defined to be longitude/latitude `unique.ID` logical; if TRUE, return an ID (integer) for each point that is different only when two points do not share the same location `memcmp` use `memcmp` to find exactly equal coordinates; see NOTE `remove.second` logical; if TRUE, the second of each pair of duplicate points is removed, if FALSE remove the first

### Value

`zerodist` and `zerodist2` return a two-column matrix with in each row pairs of row numbers with identical coordinates; a matrix with zero rows is returned if no such pairs are found. For `zerodist`, row number pairs refer to row pairs in `obj`. For `zerodist2`, row number pairs refer to rows in `obj` and `obj2`, respectively. `remove.duplicates` removes duplicate observations if present, and else returns `obj`.

### Note

When using kriging, duplicate observations sharing identical spatial locations result in singular covariance matrices. This function may help identify and remove spatial duplices. The full matrix with all pair-wise distances is not stored; the double loop is done at the C level.

When `unique.ID=TRUE` is used, an integer index is returned. sp 1.0-14 returned the highest index, sp 1.0-15 and later return the lowest index.

When `zero` is 0.0 and `memcmp` is not `FALSE`, `zerodist` uses `memcmp` to evaluate exact equality of coordinates; there may be cases where this results in a different evaluation compared to doing the double arithmetic of computing distances.

### Examples

```data(meuse)
summary(meuse)
# pick 10 rows
n <- 10
ran10 <- sample(nrow(meuse), size = n, replace = TRUE)
meusedup <- rbind(meuse, meuse[ran10, ])
coordinates(meusedup) <- c("x", "y")
zd <- zerodist(meusedup)
sum(abs(zd[1:n,1] - sort(ran10))) # 0!
# remove the duplicate rows:
meusedup2 <- meusedup[-zd[,2], ]
summary(meusedup2)
meusedup3 <- subset(meusedup, !(1:nrow(meusedup) %in% zd[,2]))
summary(meusedup3)
coordinates(meuse) <- c("x", "y")
zerodist2(meuse, meuse[c(10:33,1,10),])
```

sp documentation built on June 7, 2022, 1:10 a.m.