knitr::opts_chunk$set(collapse = TRUE,comment = "#",fig.width = 5, fig.height = 3,fig.align = "center", fig.cap = " ",dpi = 120)

This vignette demonstrates how to use `susieR`

with "summary
statistics" in the context of genetic fine-mapping. We use the same
simulated data as in fine mapping vignette. The
simulated data are expression levels of a gene ($y$) in $N \approx 600$
individuals. We want to identify with the genotype matrix $X_{N\times
P}$ ($P=1001$) the genetic variables that causes changes in expression
level. This data set is shipped with `susieR`

. It is simulated to have
exactly three non-zero effects.

library(susieR) set.seed(1)

data(N3finemapping) attach(N3finemapping) n = nrow(X)

Notice that we've simulated two sets of $Y$ as two simulation replicates. Here we'll focus on the first data-set.

```
dim(Y)
```

Here are the three true signals in the first data-set:

b <- true_coef[,1] plot(b, pch=16, ylab='effect size')

which(b != 0)

So the underlying causal variables are 403, 653 and 773.

Summary statistics of genetic association studies typically contain
effect sizes ($\hat{\beta}$ coefficient from regression) and p-values.
These statisticscan be used to perform fine-mapping with given an
additional input of correlation matrix between variables. The
correlation matrix in genetics is typically referred to as an "LD
matrix" (LD is short for linkage disequilibrium). One may use external
reference panels to estimate it when this matrix cannot be obtained
from samples directly. *Importantly, the LD matrix has to be a matrix
containing estimates of the correlation, $r$, and not $r^2$ or $|r|$.*
See also this vignette for how to check the
consistency of the LD matrix with the summary statistics.

The `univariate_regression`

function can be used to compute summary
statistics by fitting univariate simple regression variable by
variable. The results are $\hat{\beta}$ and $SE(\hat{\beta})$ from
which z-scores can be derived. Alternatively, you can obtain z-scores
from $\hat{\beta}$ and p-values if you are provided with those
information. For example,

sumstats <- univariate_regression(X, Y[,1]) z_scores <- sumstats$betahat / sumstats$sebetahat susie_plot(z_scores, y = "z", b=b)

For this example, the correlation matrix can be computed directly from data provided:

R <- cor(X)

`susieR`

using summary statisticsBy default, SuSiE assumes at most 10 causal variables, with ```
L =
10
```

, although we note that SuSiE is generally robust to the choice of
`L`

.

Since the individual-level data is available for us here, we can
easily compute the "in-sample LD" matrix, as well as the variance of
$y$, which is `r round(var(Y[,1]),digits = 4)`

. (By "in-sample", we
means the LD was computed from the exact same matrix `X`

that was used
to obtain the other statistics.) When we fit SuSiE regression with
summary statistics, $\hat{\beta}$, $SE(\hat{\beta})$, $R$, $n$, and
var_y these are also the *sufficient statistics.* With an in-sample
LD, we can also estimate the residual variance using these sufficient
statistics. (Note that if the covariate effects are removed from the
genotypes in the univariate regression, it is recommended that the
"in-sample" LD matrix also be computed from the genotypes after the
covariate effects have been removed.)

fitted_rss1 <- susie_rss(bhat = sumstats$betahat, shat = sumstats$sebetahat, n = n, R = R, var_y = var(Y[,1]), L = 10, estimate_residual_variance = TRUE)

Using `summary`

, we can examine the posterior inclusion probability
(PIP) for each variable, and the 95% credible sets:

summary(fitted_rss1)$cs

The three causal signals have been captured by the three CSs. Note the third CS contains many variables, including the true causal variable 403.

We can also plot the posterior inclusion probabilities (PIPs):

susie_plot(fitted_rss1, y="PIP", b=b)

The true causal variables are shown in red. The 95% CSs are shown by three different colours (green, purple, blue).

Note this result is *exactly the same* as running `susie`

on the
original individual-level data:

fitted = susie(X, Y[,1], L = 10) all.equal(fitted$pip, fitted_rss1$pip) all.equal(coef(fitted)[-1], coef(fitted_rss1)[-1])

If, on the other hand, the variance of $y$ is unknown, we fit can SuSiE
regression with summary statistics, $\hat{\beta}$, $SE(\hat{\beta})$,
$R$ and $n$ (or *z*-scores, $R$ and $n$). The outputted effect estimates
are now on the standardized $X$ and $y$ scale. Still, we can estimate the
residual variance because we have the in-sample LD matrix:

fitted_rss2 = susie_rss(z = z_scores, R = R, n = n, L = 10, estimate_residual_variance = TRUE)

The result is same as if we had run `susie`

on the individual-level
data, but the output effect estimates are on different scale:

all.equal(fitted$pip, fitted_rss2$pip) plot(coef(fitted)[-1], coef(fitted_rss2)[-1], xlab = 'effects from SuSiE', ylab = 'effects from SuSiE-RSS', xlim=c(-1,1), ylim=c(-0.3,0.3))

Specifically, without the variance of $y$, these estimates are same as if we had applied SuSiE to a standardized $X$ and $y$; that is, as if $y$ and the columns of $X$ had been normalized so that $y$ and each column of $X$ had a standard deviation of 1.

fitted_standardize = susie(scale(X), scale(Y[,1]), L = 10) all.equal(coef(fitted_standardize)[-1], coef(fitted_rss2)[-1])

`susieR`

using LD matrix from reference panelWhen the original genotypes are not available, one may use a separate reference panel to estimate the LD matrix.

To illustrate this, we randomly generated 500 samples from $N(0,R)$
and treated them as reference panel genotype matrix `X_ref`

.

set.seed(1) tmp = matrix(rnorm(500*1001), 500, 1001) eigenR = eigen(R) eigenR$values[eigenR$values < 1e-10] = 0 X_ref = tmp %*% (sqrt(eigenR$values) * t(eigenR$vectors)) R_ref = cor(X_ref)

We fit the SuSiE regression using out-of sample LD matrix. The residual variance is fixed at 1 because estimating residual variance sometimes produces very inaccurate estimates with out-of-sample LD matrix. The output effect estimates are on the standardized $X$ and $y$ scale.

fitted_rss3 <- susie_rss(z_scores, R_ref, n=n, L = 10)

susie_plot(fitted_rss3, y="PIP", b=b)

In this particular example, the SuSiE result with out-of-sample LD is very similar to using the in-sample LD matrix because the LD matrices are quite similar.

plot(fitted_rss1$pip, fitted_rss3$pip, ylim=c(0,1), xlab='SuSiE PIP', ylab='SuSiE-RSS PIP')

In some rare cases, the sample size $n$ is unknown. When the sample
size is not provided as input to `susie_rss`

, this is in effect
assuming the sample size is infinity and all the effects are small,
and the estimated PVE for each variant will be close to zero. The
outputted effect estimates are on the "noncentrality parameter" scale.

fitted_rss4 = susie_rss(z_scores, R_ref, L = 10) susie_plot(fitted_rss4, y="PIP", b=b)

Here are some details about the computing environment, including the versions of R, and the R packages, used to generate these results.

```
sessionInfo()
```

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