xgb.plot.tree: Plot a boosted tree model

View source: R/xgb.plot.tree.R

xgb.plot.treeR Documentation

Plot a boosted tree model


Read a tree model text dump and plot the model.


  feature_names = NULL,
  model = NULL,
  trees = NULL,
  plot_width = NULL,
  plot_height = NULL,
  render = TRUE,
  show_node_id = FALSE,



names of each feature as a character vector.


produced by the xgb.train function.


an integer vector of tree indices that should be visualized. If set to NULL, all trees of the model are included. IMPORTANT: the tree index in xgboost model is zero-based (e.g., use trees = 0:2 for the first 3 trees in a model).


the width of the diagram in pixels.


the height of the diagram in pixels.


a logical flag for whether the graph should be rendered (see Value).


a logical flag for whether to show node id's in the graph.


currently not used.


The content of each node is organised that way:

  • Feature name.

  • Cover: The sum of second order gradient of training data classified to the leaf. If it is square loss, this simply corresponds to the number of instances seen by a split or collected by a leaf during training. The deeper in the tree a node is, the lower this metric will be.

  • Gain (for split nodes): the information gain metric of a split (corresponds to the importance of the node in the model).

  • Value (for leafs): the margin value that the leaf may contribute to prediction.

The tree root nodes also indicate the Tree index (0-based).

The "Yes" branches are marked by the "< split_value" label. The branches that also used for missing values are marked as bold (as in "carrying extra capacity").

This function uses GraphViz as a backend of DiagrammeR.


When render = TRUE: returns a rendered graph object which is an htmlwidget of class grViz. Similar to ggplot objects, it needs to be printed to see it when not running from command line.

When render = FALSE: silently returns a graph object which is of DiagrammeR's class dgr_graph. This could be useful if one wants to modify some of the graph attributes before rendering the graph with render_graph.


data(agaricus.train, package='xgboost')

bst <- xgboost(data = agaricus.train$data, label = agaricus.train$label, max_depth = 3,
               eta = 1, nthread = 2, nrounds = 2,objective = "binary:logistic")
# plot all the trees
xgb.plot.tree(model = bst)
# plot only the first tree and display the node ID:
xgb.plot.tree(model = bst, trees = 0, show_node_id = TRUE)

## Not run: 
# Below is an example of how to save this plot to a file.
# Note that for `export_graph` to work, the DiagrammeRsvg and rsvg packages must also be installed.
gr <- xgb.plot.tree(model=bst, trees=0:1, render=FALSE)
export_graph(gr, 'tree.pdf', width=1500, height=1900)
export_graph(gr, 'tree.png', width=1500, height=1900)

## End(Not run)

xgboost documentation built on March 31, 2023, 10:05 p.m.