library(BiocStyle)
knitr::opts_chunk$set(warning=FALSE, error=FALSE, message=FALSE)

Motivation

The SingleCellExperiment class is a lightweight Bioconductor container for storing and manipulating single-cell genomics data. It extends the RangedSummarizedExperiment class and follows similar conventions, i.e., rows should represent features (genes, transcripts, genomic regions) and columns should represent cells. It provides methods for storing dimensionality reduction results and data for alternative feature sets (e.g., synthetic spike-in transcripts, antibody-derived tags). It is the central data structure for Bioconductor single-cell packages like r Biocpkg("scater") and r Biocpkg("scran").

Creating SingleCellExperiment instances

SingleCellExperiment objects can be created via the constructor of the same name. For example, if we have a count matrix in counts, we can simply call:

library(SingleCellExperiment)
counts <- matrix(rpois(100, lambda = 10), ncol=10, nrow=10)
sce <- SingleCellExperiment(counts)
sce

In practice, it is often more useful to name the assay by passing in a named list:

sce <- SingleCellExperiment(list(counts=counts))
sce

It is similarly easy to set the column and row metadata by passing values to the appropriate arguments. We will not go into much detail here as most of this is covered by the r Biocpkg("SummarizedExperiment") documentation, but to give an example:

pretend.cell.labels <- sample(letters, ncol(counts), replace=TRUE)
pretend.gene.lengths <- sample(10000, nrow(counts))

sce <- SingleCellExperiment(list(counts=counts),
    colData=DataFrame(label=pretend.cell.labels),
    rowData=DataFrame(length=pretend.gene.lengths),
    metadata=list(study="GSE111111")
)
sce

Alternatively, we can construct a SingleCellExperiment by coercing an existing (Ranged)SummarizedExperiment object:

se <- SummarizedExperiment(list(counts=counts))
as(se, "SingleCellExperiment")

Any operation that can be applied to a RangedSummarizedExperiment is also applicable to any instance of a SingleCellExperiment. This includes access to assay data via assay(), column metadata with colData(), and so on. Again, without going into too much detail:

dim(assay(sce))
colnames(colData(sce))
colnames(rowData(sce))

To demonstrate the use of the class in the rest of the vignette, we will use the Allen data set from the r Biocpkg("scRNAseq") package.

library(scRNAseq)
sce <- ReprocessedAllenData("tophat_counts")
sce

Adding low-dimensional representations

We compute log-transformed normalized expression values from the count matrix. (We note that many of these steps can be performed as one-liners from the r Biocpkg("scater") package, but we will show them here in full to demonstrate the capabilities of the SingleCellExperiment class.)

counts <- assay(sce, "tophat_counts")
libsizes <- colSums(counts)
size.factors <- libsizes/mean(libsizes)
logcounts(sce) <- log2(t(t(counts)/size.factors) + 1)
assayNames(sce)

We obtain the PCA and t-SNE representations of the data and add them to the object with the reducedDims()<- method. Alternatively, we can representations one at a time with the reducedDim()<- method (note the missing s).

pca_data <- prcomp(t(logcounts(sce)), rank=50)

library(Rtsne)
set.seed(5252)
tsne_data <- Rtsne(pca_data$x[,1:50], pca = FALSE)

reducedDims(sce) <- list(PCA=pca_data$x, TSNE=tsne_data$Y)
sce

The coordinates for all representations can be retrieved from a SingleCellExperiment en masse with reducedDims() or one at a time by name/index with reducedDim(). Each row of the coordinate matrix is assumed to correspond to a cell while each column represents a dimension.

reducedDims(sce)
reducedDimNames(sce)
head(reducedDim(sce, "PCA")[,1:2])
head(reducedDim(sce, "TSNE")[,1:2])

Any subsetting by column of sce_sub will also lead to subsetting of the dimensionality reduction results by cell. This is convenient as it ensures our low-dimensional results are always synchronized with the gene expression data.

dim(reducedDim(sce, "PCA"))
dim(reducedDim(sce[,1:10], "PCA"))

Convenient access to named assays

In the SingleCellExperiment, users can assign arbitrary names to entries of assays. To assist interoperability between packages, we provide some suggestions for what the names should be for particular types of data:

Each of these suggested names has an appropriate getter/setter method for convenient manipulation of the SingleCellExperiment. For example, we can take the (very specifically named) tophat_counts name and assign it to counts instead:

counts(sce) <- assay(sce, "tophat_counts")
sce
dim(counts(sce))

This means that functions expecting count data can simply call counts() without worrying about package-specific naming conventions.

Adding alternative feature sets

Many scRNA-seq experiments contain sequencing data for multiple feature types beyond the endogenous genes:

Such features can be stored inside the SingleCellExperiment via the concept of "alternative Experiments". These are nested SummarizedExperiment instances that are guaranteed to have the same number and ordering of columns as the main SingleCellExperiment itself. Data for endogenous genes and other features can thus be kept separate - which is often desirable as they need to be processed differently - while still retaining the synchronization of operations on a single object.

To illustrate, consider the case of the spike-in transcripts in the Allen data. The altExp() method returns a self-contained SingleCellExperiment instance containing only the spike-in transcripts.

altExp(sce)

Each alternative Experiment can have a different set of assays from the main SingleCellExperiment. This is useful in cases where the other feature types must be normalized or transformed differently. Similarly, the alternative Experiments can have different rowData() from the main object.

rowData(altExp(sce))$concentration <- runif(nrow(altExp(sce)))
rowData(altExp(sce))
rowData(sce)

We provide the splitAltExps() utility to easily split a SingleCellExperiment into new alternative Experiments. For example, if we wanted to split the RIKEN transcripts into a separate Experiment - say, to ensure that they are not used in downstream analyses without explicitly throwing out the data - we would do:

is.riken <- grepl("^[0-9]", rownames(sce))
sce <- splitAltExps(sce, ifelse(is.riken, "RIKEN", "gene"))
altExpNames(sce)

Alternatively, if we want to swap the main and alternative Experiments - perhaps because the RIKEN transcripts were more interesting than expected, and we want to perform our analyses on them - we can simply use swapAltExp() to switch the RIKEN alternative Experiment with the gene expression data:

swapAltExp(sce, "RIKEN", saved="original")

Storing row or column pairings

A common procedure in single-cell analyses is to identify relationships between pairs of cells, e.g., to construct a nearest-neighbor graph or to mark putative physical interactions between cells. We can capture this information in the SingleCellExperiment class with the colPairs() functionality. To demonstrate, say we have 100 relationships between the cells in sce, characterized by some distance measure:

cell1 <- sample(ncol(sce), 100, replace=TRUE)
cell2 <- sample(ncol(sce), 100, replace=TRUE)
distance <- runif(100)

We store this in the SingleCellExperiment as a SelfHits object using the value metadata field to hold our data. This is easily extracted as a SelfHits or, for logical or numeric data, as a sparse matrix from r CRANpkg("Matrix").

colPair(sce, "relationships") <- SelfHits(
    cell1, cell2, nnode=ncol(sce), value=distance)
colPair(sce, "relationships")
class(colPair(sce, asSparse=TRUE))

A particularly useful feature is that the indices of the interacting cells are automatically remapped when sce is subsetted. This ensures that the pairings are always synchronized with the identities of the cells in sce.

sub <- sce[,50:300]
colPair(sub) # grabs the first pairing, if no 'type' is supplied.

Similar functionality is available for pairings between rows via the rowPairs() family of functions, which is potentially useful for representing coexpression or regulatory networks.

Additional metadata fields

The SingleCellExperiment class provides the sizeFactors() getter and setter methods, to set and retrieve size factors from the colData of the object. Each size factor represents the scaling factor applied to a cell to normalize expression values prior to downstream comparisons, e.g., to remove the effects of differences in library size and other cell-specific biases. These methods are primarily intended for programmatic use in functions implementing normalization methods, but users can also directly call this to inspect or define the size factors for their analysis.

# Making up some size factors and storing them:
sizeFactors(sce) <- 2^rnorm(ncol(sce))
summary(sizeFactors(sce))

# Deleting the size factors:
sizeFactors(sce) <- NULL
sizeFactors(sce)

The colLabels() getter and setters methods allow applications to set and retrieve cell labels from the colData. These labels can be derived from cluster annotations, assigned by classification algorithms, etc. and are often used in downstream visualization and analyses. While labels can be stored in any colData field, the colLabels() methods aim to provide some informal standardization to a default location that downstream functions can search first when attempting to retrieve annotations.

# Making up some labels and storing them:
colLabels(sce) <- sample(letters, ncol(sce), replace=TRUE)
table(colLabels(sce))

# Deleting the labels:
colLabels(sce) <- NULL
colLabels(sce)

In a similar vein, we provide the rowSubset() function for users to set and get row subsets from the rowData. This will store any vector of gene identities (e.g., row names, integer indices, logical vector) in the SingleCellExperiment object for retrieval and use by downstream functions. Users can then easily pack multiple feature sets into the same object for synchronized manipulation.

# Packs integer or character vectors into the rowData:
rowSubset(sce, "my gene set 1") <- 1:10
which(rowSubset(sce, "my gene set 1"))

# Easy to delete:
rowSubset(sce, "my gene set 1") <- NULL
rowSubset(sce, "my gene set 1")

Session information {-}

sessionInfo()


LTLA/SingleCellExperiment documentation built on May 25, 2021, 3:42 a.m.