```
# Copyright (c) 2022 Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA and its affiliates. All rights reserved.
#
# This file is part of the simtrial program.
#
# simtrial is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
#' @importFrom dplyr select mutate filter %>% arrange group_by
#' @importFrom tibble tibble
NULL
#' Process Survival Data into Counting Process Format
#'
#' Produces a tibble that is sorted by stratum and time.
#' Included in this is only the times at which one or more event occurs.
#' The output dataset contains Stratum, tte (time-to-event), at risk count and count of events at the specified tte
#' sorted by Stratum and tte.
#'
#' The function only considered two group situation.
#'
#' The tie is handled by the Breslow's Method.
#'
#' @param x a tibble with no missing values and contain variables
#' - `Stratum`: Stratum
#' - `Treatment`: Treatment group
#' - `tte`: Observed time
#' - `event`: Binary event indicator, `1` represents event, `0` represents censoring
#' @param arm value in the input `Treatment` column that indicates treatment group value.
#'
#' @return A `tibble` grouped by `Stratum` and sorted within strata by `tte`.
#' Remain rows with at least one event in the population, at least one subject
#' is at risk in both treatment group and control group.
#' Other variables in this represent the following within each stratum at
#' each time at which one or more events are observed:
#' - `events`: Total number of events
#' - `n_event_tol`: Total number of events at treatment group
#' - `n_risk_tol`: Number of subjects at risk
#' - `n_risk_trt`: Number of subjects at risk in treatment group
#' - `S`: Left-continuous Kaplan-Meier survival estimate
#' - `o_minus_e`: In treatment group, observed number of events minus expected
#' number of events. The expected number of events is estimated by assuming
#' no treatment effect with hypergeometric distribution with parameters total
#' number of events, total number of events at treatment group and number of
#' events at a time. (Same assumption of log-rank test under the null hypothesis)
#' - `var_o_minus_e`: variance of `o_minus_e` under the same assumption.
#'
#' @examples
#' library(dplyr)
#' library(tibble)
#'
#' # example 1
#' x <- tibble(Stratum = c(rep(1, 10),rep(2, 6)),
#' Treatment = rep(c(1, 1, 0, 0), 4),
#' tte = 1:16,
#' event= rep(c(0, 1), 8))
#' counting_process(x, arm = 1)
#'
#' # example 2
#' x <- sim_pw_surv(n = 400)
#' y <- cut_data_by_event(x, 150) %>% counting_process(arm = "Experimental")
#' # weighted logrank test (Z-value and 1-sided p-value)
#' z <- sum(y$o_minus_e) / sqrt(sum(y$var_o_minus_e))
#' c(z, pnorm(z))
#'
#' @export
counting_process <- function(x, arm){
unique_treatment <- unique(x$Treatment)
if(length(unique_treatment) > 2){
stop("counting_process: expected two groups!")
}
if(! arm %in% unique_treatment){
stop("tensurv: arm is not a valid treatment group value!")
}
if(! all(unique(x$event) %in% c(0, 1) ) ){
stop("counting_process: event indicator must be 0 (censoring) or 1 (event)!")
}
ans <- x %>%
group_by(Stratum) %>%
arrange(desc(tte)) %>%
mutate(one = 1,
n_risk_tol = cumsum(one),
n_risk_trt = cumsum(Treatment == arm)) %>%
# Handling ties using Breslow's method
group_by(Stratum, mtte = desc(tte)) %>%
dplyr::summarise(events = sum(event),
n_event_tol = sum((Treatment == arm) * event),
tte = first(tte),
n_risk_tol = max(n_risk_tol),
n_risk_trt = max(n_risk_trt)) %>%
# Keep calculation for observed time with at least one event, at least one subject is
# at risk in both treatment group and control group.
filter(events > 0, n_risk_tol - n_risk_trt > 0, n_risk_trt > 0) %>%
select(-mtte) %>%
mutate(s = 1 - events / n_risk_tol) %>%
arrange(Stratum, tte) %>%
group_by(Stratum) %>%
mutate( # left continuous Kaplan-Meier Estimator
S = lag(cumprod(s), default = 1),
# observed events minus Expected events in treatment group
o_minus_e = n_event_tol - n_risk_trt / n_risk_tol * events,
# variance of o_minus_e
var_o_minus_e = (n_risk_tol - n_risk_trt) * n_risk_trt * events * (n_risk_tol - events) / n_risk_tol^2 / (n_risk_tol - 1)) %>%
select(-s)
return(ans)
}
```

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