knitr::opts_chunk$set(
    echo = TRUE,
    message = FALSE,
    warning = FALSE
)

library(learnr) #necessary to render tutorial correctly

library(dplyr)
library(ggplot2)
library(htmltools)
library(magrittr)


source("./www/discovr_helpers.R")

#Read dat files needed for the tutorial

ice_tib <- discovr::ice_bucket

discovr: Summarizing data

Overview

discovr package hex sticker, female space pirate with gun. Gunsmoke forms the letter R. **Usage:** This tutorial accompanies [Discovering Statistics Using R and RStudio](https://www.discovr.rocks/) [@field_discovering_2021] by [Andy Field](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andy_Field_(academic)). It contains material from the book so there are some copyright considerations but I offer them under a [Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Tl;dr: you can use this tutorial for teaching and non-profit activities but please don't meddle with it or claim it as your own work.

r cat_space(fill = "h3", height = 2) Welcome to the discovr space pirate academy

Hi, welcome to discovr space pirate academy. Well done on embarking on this brave mission to planet r rproj()s, which is a bit like Mars, but a less red and more hostile environment. That's right, more hostile than a planet without water. Fear not though, the fact you are here means that you can master r rproj(), and before you know it you'll be as brilliant as our pirate leader Mae Jemstone (she's the badass with the gun). I am the space cat-det, and I will pop up to offer you tips along your journey.

On your way you will face many challenges, but follow Mae's system to keep yourself on track:

It's not just me that's here to help though, you will meet other characters along the way:

Also, use hints and solutions to guide you through the exercises (Figure 1).

Each codebox has a hints or solution button that activates a popup window containing code and text to guide you through each exercise.
Figure 1: In a code exercise click the hints button to guide you through the exercise.

By for now and good luck - you'll be amazing!

Workflow

Packages

This tutorial uses the following packages:

I try to follow the Google r rproj() style guide and tidyverse style guide in always declaring the package when using a function: package::function(). For example, if I want to use the mutate() function from the package dplyr, I will write dplyr::mutate().

It is good practice to be explicit about packages to avoid clashes where functions from different packages have the same name. It also means that you don't need to load packages at the start of your markdown document.

There are two main exceptions to this rule.

  1. There are functions within some tidyverse packages that would be used within other functions. Including the package name makes the code difficult to read. Also, no-one wants to write ggplot2:: before every function from ggplot2.
  2. To use the pipe operator (%>%) you need to have magrittr loaded.

We can load all of the packages that are exceptions in one step by loading tidyverse at the beginning of our r rproj() Markdown document:

library(tidyverse)

Data

To work outside of this tutorial you need to download the following data file:

Set up an r rstudio() project in the way that I recommend in this tutorial, and save the data files to the folder within your project called [data]{.alt}. Place this code in the first code chunk in your r rproj() Markdown document:

ice_tib <- here::here("data/ice_bucket.csv") %>% readr::read_csv()

r bmu() Frequency distributions [(1)]{.alt}

We will use data about memes, which typically have a common pattern: they start small, rapidly expand in popularity and then die out. Specifically we'll use data from the ice bucket challenge. You can check Wikipedia for the full story, but it all started (arguably) with golfer Chris Kennedy tipping a bucket of iced water on his head to raise awareness of the disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease). The idea is that you are challenged and have 24 hours to post a video of you having a bucket of iced water poured over your head. In this video you also challenge at least three other people. If you fail to complete the challenge your forfeit is to donate to charity (in this case ALS). Many people completed the challenge and made donations.

The ice bucket challenge generated something like 2.3 million on YouTube. The data are stored in [ice_tib]{.alt}, which contains one variable upload_day that is the number of days after Chris Kennedy’s initial challenge that each of 2,323,452 ice bucket related videos were uploaded to YouTube. For example, if the value is 21 it means that the video was uploaded 21 days after Chris Kennedy’s initial challenge. We can't see the pattern of the data easily from 2,323,452 scores. However, we can if we count the frequency of each score and place it in a table.

r bmu() Frequency tables [(1)]{.alt}

To get a basic frequency table we use the group_by() and summarise() and n() functions from the dplyr package (automatically loaded as part of tidyverse). These functions do the following:

To count the frequencies of scores we need to do two things:

  1. Tell r rproj() to treat values that are the same, as being in the same group or category. For example, tell it that scores of 21 are from the same group/category. We do this using group_by(upload_day), which tells r rproj() to treat scores that are the same within upload_day as being in the same group. Any subsequent operation will be conducted on these 'groups'.
  2. Count how many scores fall into each 'category'. This is done using summarize(), within which we create a variable called frequency that counts how many items are in each group created by group_by(). This variable will, therefore, contain the number of times each value of upload_day occurs.

r robot() Code example

We can create a frequency table called [freq_tbl]{.alt} as follows:

freq_tbl <- ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::group_by(upload_day) %>% 
  dplyr::summarise(
    frequency = n()
  )
freq_tbl

To sum up, the code feeds the data stored in [ice_tib]{.alt} into the group_by() function and asks it to group the output by the variable upload_day. Having done this, a variable called frequency is created that counts how many scores is in each 'group'.

We can see, for example, that 29000 videos were uploaded 30 days after Chris Kennedy’s initial challenge, and 10000 were uploaded 27 days after.

r bmu() Grouped frequency tables [(1)]{.alt}

The frequency table that we just produced is large and a little unwieldy. It might be useful to instead have a table that counts the frequencies for a range of scores. For example, how many videos were uploaded between 21 and 24 days, and 25 and 28 days. This is known as a grouped frequency distribution. To produce one of these, first we have to place the values of upload_days into what are known as bins. The values of the number of days range from 21 to 76 days after Chris Kennedy’s initial challenge. Imagine we wanted to group the data in such a way as to see how many videos were uploaded every 4 days (instead of every day). To do this, we'd need to group the values of days into bins of 21-24, 25-28, 29-32 and so on. Notice that each 'bin' is made up of 4 days worth of values.

r robot() Code example

We can create these bins using ggplot2::cut_width() which takes this form:

ggplot2::cut_width(variable, width_of_bin)

In which we place the variable that we wish to spread across bins, and [width_of_bin]{.alt} is how wide we want the bins to be. If we want to split the variable upload_day into bins containing 4 days worth of data we'd use:

ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)

Combining this function with dplyr::mutate() (which we encountered in the discovr_01 tutorial) to create a new variable called days_group, we could execute:

r robot() Code example

gp_freq_tbl <- ice_tib %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    days_group = ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)
    )
gp_freq_tbl

This creates a new object called [gp_freq_tbl]{.alt} that contains each value within [ice_tib]{.alt} but with an extra column/variable called days_group that indicates into which 'bin' the value of upload_day falls.

`r cat_space()` **Tip: Set notation** Notice that each value of **upload_day** now has a corresponding value of **days_group** containing the 'bin' to which the score has been assigned. For example, the first score of 34 has been assigned to the bin labelled `(30, 34]`. This is the bin containing any score above 30 up to and including 34. The label uses standard mathematical notation for sets where `(` or `)` means 'not including' and `[` or `]` means 'including'.

Having done this we can again use summarize() and n() to count the scores like we did before. However, this time we want to group the summary by days_group instead of upload_day. Doing so means that the number of times a score falls within each bin will be counted rather than the number times each score occurs.

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Create a grouped frequency table called [gp_freq_tbl]{.alt} by starting with the code in the code example and then using the code we used to create [freq_tbl]{.alt} to create a pipe that summarizes the grouped scores.


# Start with the text from the code example, which creates the bins:
gp_freq_tbl <- ice_tib %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    days_group = ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)
    )
# Previously we used this code to count scores
# Think about how to connect this code to the previous
# code. Focus on the right hand side.
freq_tbl <- ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::group_by(upload_day) %>% 
  dplyr::summarise(
    frequency = n()
  )
# We can combine the two pieces of code like this. 
# We take the code that bins the data, then
# pipe the resulting tibble into 
# group_by and summarize.
gp_freq_tbl <- ice_tib %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    days_group = ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)
    ) %>% 
  dplyr::group_by(upload_day) %>% 
  dplyr::summarise(
    frequency = n()
  )

# If you run the above code you'll get the same
# table as before (freq_tbl) because we have grouped|
# by upload day
# We want to group by days_group not upload day.. 
# Change upload_day in the group_by() function
# to be days_group 
gp_freq_tbl <- ice_tib %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    days_group = ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)
    ) %>% 
  dplyr::group_by(days_group) %>% 
  dplyr::summarise(
    frequency = n()
  )

# Job done. We want to see the resulting table so we add:
gp_freq_tbl

We can see, for example that 534000 videos were uploaded after 38 days and up to and including 42 days.

r bmu() Relative frequencies [(1)]{.alt}

We now have an object [gp_freq_dist]{.alt} that contains the number of days grouped into bins of 4 days (days_group) and the number of videos uploaded during each of the time periods represented by those bins (frequency).

r robot() Code example

If we want to calculate the relative frequency (i.e., the proportion of videos uploaded during each of the time periods represented by the bins) we can use dplyr::mutate() to add a variable that divides the frequency by the total number of videos uploaded. We can find this total using sum().

... %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    relative_freq = frequency/sum(frequency)
  )

Within the mutate() function we create a new column called relative_freq using [frequency/sum(frequency)]{.alt}. The effect of this command is that for each value of the variable frequency within [gp_freq_dist]{.alt}, a new value is computed that is the original value divided by the sum (or total) of all of the frequencies. This process converts the raw frequency into a relative frequency.

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Using the code example, pipe the [gp_freq_dist]{.alt} object into mutate(), calculate the relative frequency and store it as a variable called relative_freq.

gp_freq_dist <- ice_tib %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    days_group = ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)
    ) %>% 
  dplyr::group_by(days_group) %>% 
  dplyr::summarise(
    frequency = n()
  )

# We want to add a variable to an existing tibble (gp_freq_dist)
# so a good place to start is:

gp_freq_dist <- gp_freq_dist %>% ...

# Think about what will be on the other wise of the pipe
# We pipe the data into the mutate() from the code example

gp_freq_dist <- gp_freq_dist %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    relative_freq = frequency/sum(frequency)
  )
# To see the results we need to execute the name of rthe table:

gp_freq_dist <- gp_freq_dist %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    relative_freq = frequency/sum(frequency)
  )
gp_freq_dist

r user_visor() Efficient code [(2)]{.alt}

In the tasks above we created the table of relative frequencies step by step:

  1. We created [gp_freq_dist]{.alt} from [ice_tib]{.alt} and added the variable days_group to it.
  2. We fed [gp_freq_dist]{.alt} into a pipe that grouped by days_group and then calculated the frequency. We saved it using the same name ([gp_freq_dist]{.alt}).
  3. We fed [gp_freq_dist]{.alt} into a pipe that added a column with the relative frequency.

r robot() Code example

Usually it's more efficient to carry out these steps in one piece of code. For example, if we combine all of the previous operations we get:

gp_freq_dist <- ice_tib %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    days_group = ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)
    ) %>% 
  dplyr::group_by(days_group) %>% 
  dplyr::summarise(
    frequency = n()
  ) %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    relative_freq = frequency/sum(frequency),
    percent = relative_freq*100
  )

gp_freq_dist
gp_freq_dist <- ice_tib %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    days_group = ggplot2::cut_width(upload_day, 4)
    ) %>% 
  dplyr::group_by(days_group) %>% 
  dplyr::summarise(
    frequency = n()
  ) %>% 
  dplyr::mutate(
    relative_freq = frequency/sum(frequency),
    percent = relative_freq*100
  )

gp_freq_dist

This code takes the data in [ice_tib]{.alt}, feeds it into mutate() to create a new variable called days_group which contains the 'bin' to which the score in upload_day belongs. Having added these 'variable bins', we group the data by them using group_by(), count how many scores fall into each bin using summarize() and store these in a variable called frequency. We then feed this summary table into mutate() to create new variables containing the relative frequency in its raw form and expressed as a percentage. We store the summary table in an object called [gp_freq_dist]{.alt}.

r bmu() Histograms [(1)]{.alt}

As well as tabulated frequency distributions, we can visualise distributions using histograms. ggplot2 is a powerful package for producing data visualisations that we will explore in detail in the discovr_05 tutorial. For now, we will use it to create a histogram without worrying about how it works.

`r cat_space()` **Tip: Always load ggplot2!** We've discussed elsewhere that if you include packages when you use functions (e.g., `dplyr::mutate()`) you don't need to explicitly load the package (in this case `dplyr`). However, to create plots with `ggplot2` you build them up layer by layer, which means you use a lot of `ggplot2` functions. For this reason, I advise loading it at the start of your markdown document and not worrying too much about including package references when you use functions. You can load it either with `library(ggplot2)` or by loading the entire tidyverse using `library(tidyverse)`.

r bmu() A basic histogram [(1)]{.alt}

Let's start by plotting a histogram of number of days between the original ice bucket challenge video and when subsequent videos were uploaded. Remember, the data are stored in a variable called upload_day in the [ice_tib]{.alt} tibble. To initiate the plot we use the ggplot() function, which at its simplest has this general form:

r robot() Code example

`ggplot2::ggplot(my_tib, aes(variable_for_x_axis, variable_for_y_axis))`

Within the ggplot() function replace [my_tib]{.alt} with the name of the tibble containing the data you want to plot, and within the aes() function replace [variable_for_x_axis]{.alt} with the name of the variable to be plotted on the x-axis (horizontal), and replace [variable_for_y_axis]{.alt} with the name of the variable to be plotted on the y-axis (vertical).

To plot the days since the first ice bucket challenge video that each video was uploaded, we could execute the code below, which uses the tibble called [ice_tib]{.alt}, and plots the variable upload_day on the x axis (for a histogram we don't need to specify y). Try it.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day))

That doesn't look right!?

Don't worry, you haven't done anything wrong: this command tells ggplot2 what to plot, but not how to plot it. We need to add something called a geom to display the data. For a histogram we use geom_histogram().

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Take the code from the code example (reproduced below), add + geom_histogram() to it and run it.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day))
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram()

The completed command tells r rproj() to take the object created by ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) and add (+) a layer to it using geom_histogram(). You should see a beautiful histogram now!

r bmu() Changing the bin widths [(1)]{.alt}

By default ggplot2 constructs the bins of the histogram to be 1/30th the width of the data. You can over-ride this default by specifying [binwidth =]{.alt} within the geom_histogram() function. In the code box below, type [binwidth = 1]{.alt} into the brackets after geom_histogram() and execute the code. Note how the histogram changes. A binwidth of 1 makes sense for these data because responses could only be whole numbers (days), but try some other values and note how the histogram changes.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram()
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1)

r bmu() Changing the colours of the bars [(1)]{.alt}

We can change the colour of the bars by including [fill =]{.alt} within the geom_histogram() function.

r robot() Code example

For example, we could specify the colour red as:

geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "red")
`r bug()` **De-bug: Check for missing commas** Note that arguments within a function are separated by a comma. In this example [binwidth = 1, fill = "red"]{.alt} will work but [binwidth = 1 fill = "red"]{.alt} (note the comma is missing) would throw an error. If you get an error message, always check for these small syntax errors because a missing comma or quote can wreak more havoc than you could possibly imagine. Also remember that **everyone** makes these errors, even those of us who use `r rproj()` all day, every day.

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Adapt the code below to colour the histogram bars red.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1)

You can also specify any HEX colour code. For example, the shade of blue defined by hex code #56B4E9 is good for colour blind people, so we could specify this by replacing ["red"]{.alt} with ["#56B4E9"]{.alt}.

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Replacing ["red"]{.alt} with ["#56B4E9"]{.alt} and run the code to see the effect this change has. Using the HEX colour code website, try changing the fill colour to a different colour using a hex code.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "red")
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9")

r bmu() Changing the transparency of the bars [(1)]{.alt}

You can also make filled objects semi-transparent by using [alpha =]{.alt} where alpha is a proportion (i.e., between 0 and 1). For example, if you want the histograms to have 20% opacity you could include [alpha = 0.2]{.alt} in the geom_histogram() function (remembering to separate it from other options with a comma).

`r bug()` **De-bug: inadmissible values** Arguments within functions often have admissible values, an example would be that alpha *must* fall between 0 and 1. If you set a value outside of an argument's range, the argument is usually ignored, or you'll get an error. If changing a value within a function appears to have no effect (or you get an error) check that you have used admissible values. In the current example, check you haven't included [alpha = 100]{.alt}.

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Taking our previous histogram, try setting 50% opacity. Try out some other values of alpha (between 0 and 1) and note the effect on the transparency of the bars.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9")
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5)

r bmu() Editing axis labels [(1)]{.alt}

r robot() Code example

To change the labels on the x- and y-axis we can use the labs() function. To do this, we add a + after the geom_histogram() function and on the next line type:

labs(y = "label_for_y_axis", x = "label_for_x_axis")

Replacing [label_for_y_axis]{.alt} with the text we want on the y-axis and [label_for_x_axis]{.alt} with the text that we want on the x-axis. For the current plot, we are plotting the frequency of uploads (because it's a histogram) on the y-axis and the number of days since the original ice bucket challenge on the x-axis, so we might use:

labs(y = "Frequency", x = "Days since first ice bucket challenge video")

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Run the code in the box below to reproduce our histogram, then add the code from the code example and run it again. You should see that the axis labels change.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5)
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5) +
  labs(y = "Frequency", x = "Days since first ice bucket challenge video")
`r bug()` **De-bug: don't forget +** A common cause of errors messages when using `ggplot()` is forgetting to put a `+` at the end of each line (except the last). If you get an error message check that each line that builds up a plot has a `+` at the end of it (i.e. each function is separated by `+`).

r bmu() Changing theme [(1)]{.alt}

ggplot2 has various built in themes that change the appearance of the plot. The two we will use most often are theme_bw(), which applies a black and white theme and theme_minimal() which applies a minimalist theme. Both of these themes are good for scientific plots (like the ones you'll find in journal articles).

r robot() Code example

To apply a theme we add + after the previous function and then type theme_bw() or theme_minimal(). For example, to apply a minimalist theme to our histogram code we'd use the code below. Note that we have taken the code from the previous section and simply tagged + theme_minimal() to the end. Compare the result to the previous version of the histogram.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5) +
  labs(y = "Frequency", x = "Days since first ice bucket challenge video") +
  theme_minimal()

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Try applying theme_bw(), theme_classic() and theme_dark() to see what effect it has on the plot.

ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5) +
  labs(y = "Frequency", x = "Days since first ice bucket challenge video")
# Theme black and white:
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5) +
  labs(y = "Frequency", x = "Days since first ice bucket challenge video") +
  theme_bw()
# Theme classic:
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5) +
  labs(y = "Frequency", x = "Days since first ice bucket challenge video") +
  theme_classic()
# Theme dark:
ggplot2::ggplot(ice_tib, aes(upload_day)) +
  geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, fill = "#56B4E9", alpha = 0.5) +
  labs(y = "Frequency", x = "Days since first ice bucket challenge video") +
  theme_dark()

We'll return to the ggplot2 package in more depth in discovr_05.

r bmu() Summarizing data [(1)]{.alt}

We've seen already that functions take the form of a command followed by brackets. We also saw that there are usually options that can be placed within those brackets (for example, in the previous section we changed the binwidth and bar colour of the histogram by placing instructions within the geom_histogram() function). We'll explore this idea more by looking at the function to estimate the mean and median of the ice bucket scores.

r bmu() The mean and median [(1)]{.alt}

We can compute the mean using the built-in function mean(). The full format of the function is:

mean(variable, trim = 0, na.rm = FALSE)

Which just says that you need to include a reference to the variable/data that you want the mean for, and that you can set two arguments:

`r bug()` **De-bug: missing values** The default in many functions is not to remove missing values (e.g. [na.rm = FALSE]{.alt}). If you have missing values in your data and don't change this default behaviour `r rproj()` will throw an error. Therefore, if you get an error from a function like `mean()`, check whether you have missing values and whether you have forgotten to set [na.rm = TRUE]{.alt}.

The function for the median has a similar format except that there isn't an argument to trim the data because that wouldn't make sense (the median is effectively the data with a 50% trim):

median(variable, na.rm = FALSE)
`r cat_space()` **Tip: using $** Remember from the `discovr_01` tutorial that we can use `$` to refer to a variable within a tibble. In general, we use `tibble$variable`, for example, in the previous tutorial we used `ice_tib$upload_day` to select the variable **upload_day** from the [ice_tib]{.alt} tibble.

r robot() Code example

If you are happy with the default settings you don't need to specify those arguments explicitly. For example, to find the mean of the variable upload_day from the [ice_tib]{.alt} tibble, we could execute:

mean(ice_tib$upload_day)

However, if we wanted to remove missing values we need to override the default setting for the [na.rm]{.alt} argument:

mean(ice_tib$upload_day, na.rm = TRUE)
`r cat_space()` **Tip: Finding the arguments of a function** To find the list of arguments (options) available for a particular function, remember that you can get help by executing `?` and the name of the function. For example, to remind yourself of the options for the `mean()` function, execute `?mean`

We can obtain the median in much the same way.

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Find the median number of days after the original ice bucket video that other videos were uploaded.


median(ice_tib$upload_day)

r bmu() Quantifying the 'fit' of the mean [(1)]{.alt}

We can use the functions var(), sd() to get the variance and standard deviation of the ice bucket scores. These functions behave exactly like mean() in that we input the variable for which we want the variance and standard deviation and specify how we treat missing values (by default they are not removed):

r robot() Code example

var(variable_name, na.rm = FALSE)
sd(variable_name, na.rm = FALSE)

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Use what you learned in the previous section and the code example above to get the variance and standard deviation of the days since the original ice bucket video that other videos were uploaded.

`r cat_space()` **Tip** Because the current data has no missing scores we can omit the default argument of [na.rm=FALSE]{.alt}.

var(ice_tib$upload_day)
sd(ice_tib$upload_day)

r bmu() The inter-quartile range [(1)]{.alt}

We can use the IQR() function to obtain the interquartile range of a set of scores. This function has an additional option of [type =]{.alt} which allows you to specify one of 8 different ways to calculate the IQR. The default is 7. There is an argument for using [type = 8]{.alt}, which uses a method recommended by [@hyndman_sample_1996].

r robot() Code example

IQR(variable_name, na.rm = FALSE, type = 7)

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Adapt the code example to get the inter-quartile range of the days since the original ice bucket video. Recalcutae it using method 8.

IQR(ice_tib$upload_day, type = 8)

In the code box below, use this function to get the inter-quartile range of the upload_day variable.


# The code example is:
IQR(variable_name, na.rm = FALSE, type = 7)

# Replace variable_name with the name of the variable that we want to summarize.
# This gives us:

IQR(ice_tib$upload_day, na.rm = FALSE, type = 7)

# We have no missing values, and to start with we want the default method
# of 7 so we can omit these arguments
# Solution 1:

IQR(ice_tib$upload_day)

# To use method 8, insert type = 8 into the function
# Solution 2:

IQR(ice_tib$upload_day, type = 8)

r user_visor() Rounding values [(1)]{.alt}

We can use the round() function to round values. It

round(value, number_of_decimal_places = 0)

In which we input a [value]{.alt}, and specify the number of decimal places we want (the default is 0, which returns a whole number). For example, to round the value 3.211420 to a whole number we would execute:

round(3.211420)

But to round it to two decimal places we would include the number two after a comma:

round(3.211420, 2)

We could also use a pipe to feed a mean, median or variance into the round function. For example, to round the value of the variance of upload_day to 3 decimal places we could execute:

r robot() Code example

var(ice_tib$upload_day) %>%
  round(3)

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Round the standard deviation and mean of upload_day to 2 decimal places.


# SD
sd(ice_tib$upload_day) %>% round(2)
# Mean
mean(ice_tib$upload_day) %>% round(2)

r user_visor() Creating a summary table [(2)]{.alt}

So far we have looked at computing individual statistics for a set of scores, but what if we want to combine these values into a table? We can do this using the summarise() function described earlier in the tutorial.

r robot() Code example

The code looks like this in general:

ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::summarise(
    median =  median(upload_day),
    mean =  mean(upload_day),
    ...
    ) %>%
    round(., 2)

The code feeds the data stored in [ice_tib]{.alt} into the summarise() function. In this function new variables are created. The first variable we name median and it stores the output of median(upload_day). In other words, we create a variable that we chose to call median (left hand side of the command) that stores the value of the median of the variable upload_day (right-hand side of the command). Similarly, we store the mean upload day in a variable called mean and so on. We can add as many new variables as we wish, but for the last variable we create we need to omit the comma at the end of the line (like we do when using mutate()). Finally, we pipe all of these values into the round() function, which rounds them to two decimal places.

`r bug()` **De-bug: commas at the end of commands** Every line within the `summarize()` function ends with a comma except for the last. When `r rproj()` sees a comma it expects to see another command, so the lack of comma after the last command tells `r rproj()` that it is the last command. If you get an error message when using `summarize()` check you have remembered commas at the end of each line except the last.

r alien() Alien coding challenge

Create a summary table containing the mean, median, IQR, variance and SD of the number of days since the original ice bucket video.


#start with the code example:
ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::summarise(
    median =  median(upload_day),
    mean =  mean(upload_day),
    ...
    ) %>%
    round(., 2)
# Now add the command to get the IQR into the summarize() function
ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::summarise(
    median =  median(upload_day),
    mean =  mean(upload_day),
    IQR = IQR(upload_day)
    ) %>%
    round(., 2)
# Now add the command to get the variance into the summarize() function
ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::summarise(
    median =  median(upload_day),
    mean =  mean(upload_day),
    IQR = IQR(upload_day),
    variance = var(upload_day)
    ) %>%
    round(., 2)
# Now add the command to get the standard deviation into the summarize() function
ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::summarise(
    median =  median(upload_day),
    mean =  mean(upload_day),
    IQR = IQR(upload_day),
    variance = var(upload_day),
    std_dev = sd(upload_day)
    ) %>%
    round(., 2)

# Check that you have commas at the end of every line except the last within summarise.

r robot() Code example

If we want to store this table of summary statistics we can do so by assigning it to a new object. Let's say we want to assign it to an object called [upload_summary]{.alt} then we'd add upload_summary <- to the beginning of the command

upload_summary <- ice_tib %>%
  dplyr::summarise(
    median =  median(upload_day),
    mean =  mean(upload_day),
    IQR = IQR(upload_day),
    variance = var(upload_day),
    std_dev = sd(upload_day)
    ) %>%
    round(., 2) 
discovr package hex sticker, female space pirate with gun. Gunsmoke forms the letter R. **A message from Mae Jemstone:** Well done on completing phase 2 of your mission! You have learnt how to summarize data using histograms and statistics such as the mean, median, variance and standard deviation. Remember to go over any parts that you don't fully understand, and ask questions!

Resources {data-progressive=FALSE}

Statistics

r rproj("h3")

Acknowledgement

I'm extremely grateful to Allison Horst for her very informative blog post on styling learnr tutorials with CSS and also for sending me a CSS template file and allowing me to adapt it. Without Allison, these tutorials would look a lot worse (but she can't be blamed for my colour scheme).

References



profandyfield/discovr documentation built on Dec. 11, 2020, 10:46 a.m.