Roc: Comparing prediction models with Receiver operating...

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References Examples

View source: R/RocMethods.R

Description

Evaluation of the performance of risk prediction models with binary status response variable (case/control or similar). Roc curves are either based on a single continuous marker, or on the probability prediction of an event. Probability predictions are extracted from a given (statistical) model, such as logistic regression, or algorithm, such as random forest. The area under the curve and the Brier score is used to summarize and compare the performance.

Usage

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## S3 method for class 'list'
 Roc(object, formula, data, splitMethod='noSplitMethod',
noinf.method=c('simulate'), simulate='reeval', B, M, breaks, cbRatio=1,
RocAverageMethod='vertical',
RocAverageGrid=switch(RocAverageMethod, 'vertical'=seq(0,1,.01),
'horizontal'=seq(1,0,-.01)), model.args=NULL, model.parms=NULL,
keepModels=FALSE, keepSampleIndex=FALSE, keepCrossValRes=FALSE,
keepNoInfSimu, slaveseed, cores=1, na.accept=0, verbose=FALSE, ...)

Arguments

object

A named list of R objects that represent predictive markers, prediction models, or prediction algorithms. The function predictStatusProb is called on the R objects to extract the predicted risk (see details). For cross-validation (e.g. when splitMethod is 'bootcv') all the R objects in this list must include a call which can be evaluated in a learning subset of the data.

formula

A formula whose left hand side is used to identify the binary outcome variable in data. If missing, use the formula of the (first) model in object.

data

A data set in which to validate the prediction models. If missing, the function tries to extract the data from the call of the (first) model in object.

The data set needs to have the same structure, variable names, factor levels, etc., as the data in which the models were trained. If the subjects in data were not used to train the models given in object, this leads to an external validation situation.

However, note that if one of the elements in object is a formula then it is evaluated in this data set.

splitMethod

Method for estimating the generalization error.

none:Assess the models in the data given by data. If this data set coincides with the train data where the models were fitted this yields an apparent (or re-substitution) estimate of performance. Otherwise, this leads to an external validation situation.

bootCV: Internal bootstrap cross validation. The prediction models are trained on B bootstrap samples of the data. Bootstrap samples are either drawn with replacement from data (same size), or without replacement of the size M where M is a number smaller than NROW(data). The model performance parameters (Roc, Brier, AUC) are estimated with the observations that are NOT in the current bootstrap sample.

boot632: Linear combination of the apparent performance and the BootCV performance using the constant weight .632 (see Efron & Tibshirani, 1997).

boot632plus: Linear combination of apparent performance and Bootcv using weights dependent on how the models perform in permuted data (see Efron & Tibshirani, 1997).

noinf: Assess the models trained in permutations of data.

noinf.method

Experimental: For .632+ method the way to obtain no-information performance. This can either be 'simulate' or 'none'.

simulate

Experimental: For .632+ method. If 'reeval' then the models are re-build in the current permuted data for computing the no-information Roc curve.

B

Number of repetitions for internal crossvalidation. The meaning depends on the argument splitMethod: When splitMethod in c('Bootcv','Boot632','Boot632plus') it is the number of bootstrap samples, default is 100. Otherwise it is ignored.

M

The size of the bootstrap samples for cross-validation without replacement.

breaks

Break points for computing the Roc curve. Defaults to seq(0,1,.01) when crossvalidation is applied, i.e., when splitMethod in c('Bootcv','Boot632','Boot632plus'). Otherwise use all unique values of the predictive marker.

cbRatio

Experimental. Cost/benefit ratio. Default value is 1, meaning that misclassified cases are as bad as misclassified controls.

RocAverageMethod

Method for averaging ROC curves across data splits. If 'horizontal' average crossvalidated specificities for fixed sensitivity values, specified in RocAverageGrid, otherwise, if 'vertical', average crossvalidated specificities for fixed sensitivity values. See Fawcett, T. (2006) for details.

RocAverageGrid

Grid points for the averaging of Roc curves. A sequence of values at which to compute averages across the ROC curves obtained for different data splits during crossvalidation.

model.args

List of extra arguments that can be passed to the predictStatusProb methods. The list must have an entry for each entry in object.

model.parms

List with exactly one entry for each entry in object. Each entry names parts of the value of the fitted models that should be extracted and added to the output (see value).

keepModels

If FALSE keep only the names of the elements of object. If 'Call' then keep the call of the elements of object. Else, add the object as it is to the output.

keepSampleIndex

Logical. If FALSE remove the cross-validation index (which tells who was in the learn and who in the validation set) from the output list which otherwise is included in the method part of the output list.

keepCrossValRes

Logical. If TRUE add all B crossvalidation results to the output (see value). Defaults to TRUE.

keepNoInfSimu

Logical. If TRUE add the B results in permuted data (for no-information performance) to the output (see value). Defaults to FALSE.

slaveseed

Vector of seeds, as long as B, to be given to the slaves in parallel computing to control the models build in crossvalidation loop.

cores

Number of cores for parallel computing. Passed as the value of the argument mc.cores when calling mclapply.

na.accept

For 'Bootcv' estimate of performance. The maximal number of bootstrap samples in which the training the models may fail This should usually be a small number relative to B.

verbose

if TRUE the procedure is reporting details of the progress, e.g. it prints the current step in cross-validation procedures.

...

Used to pass arguments to submodules.

Details

All functions work on a list of models to ease comparison.

Bootstrap-crossvalidation techniques are implemented to estimate the generalization performance of the model(s), i.e., the performance which can be expected in new subjects.

By default, when crossvalidation is involved, the ROC curve is approximated on a grid of either sensitivities or specificities and not computed at all unique changepoints of the crossvalidated ROC curves, see Fawcett, T. (2006). The (density of the) grid can be controlled with the argument: RocAverageGrid

Missing data in the response or in the marker/predicted risk cause a failure.

For each R object which potentially can predict a probability for an event, there should be a corresponding predictStatusProb method:

For example, to assess a prediction model which evaluates to a myclass object one defines a function called predictStatusProb.myclass with arguments object,newdata,.... For example, the function predictStatusProb.lrm looks like this:

predictStatusProb.lrm <- function(object,newdata,...) p <- as.numeric(predict(object,newdata=newdata,type='fitted')) class(p) <- 'predictStatusProb' p

Currently implemented are predictStatusProb methods for the following R-functions:

numeric (marker values are passed on)

formula (single predictor: extracted from newdata and passed on, multiple predictors: projected to score by logistic regression)

glm (from library(stats)

lrm (from library(Design)

rpart (from library(rpart))

BinaryTree (from library(party))

ElasticNet (a wrapper for glmnet from library(glmnet))

randomForest from library(randomForest)

rfsrc from library(randomForestSRC)

Value

Object of class Roc or class Brier.

Depending on the splitMethod the object includes the following components:

Roc, Brier, Auc

A list of Roc curve(s), Brier scores (BS), and areas under the curves (Auc), one for each element of argument object, estimated according to splitMethod.

weight

The weight used to linear combine the AppRoc and the BootcvRoc Only available if splitMethod is one of 'Boot632', or 'Boot632plus'.

overfit

Estimated overfit of the model(s). Only if splitMethod is one of 'Boot632', or 'Boot632plus'.

call

The call that produced the object

models

See keepModels

method

Summary of the splitMethod used.

Author(s)

Thomas Gerds [email protected]

References

Fawcett, T. (2006). An introduction to ROC analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters, 27, 861-874.

Gerds, Cai & Schumacher (2008). The Performance of Risk Prediction Models. Biometrical Journal, Vol 50, 4, 457-479.

Efron, Tibshirani (1997) Journal of the American Statistical Association 92, 548–560 Improvement On Cross-Validation: The .632+ Bootstrap Method.

Wehberg, S and Schumacher, M (2004) A comparison of nonparametric error rate estimation methods in classification problems. Biometrical Journal, Vol 46, 35–47

Examples

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## Generate some data with binary response Y
## depending on X1 and X2 and X1*X2
set.seed(40)
N <- 40
X1 <- rnorm(N)
X2 <- abs(rnorm(N,4))
X3 <- rbinom(N,1,.4)
expit <- function(x) exp(x)/(1+exp(x))
lp <- expit(-2 + X1 + X2 + X3 - X3*X2)
Y <- factor(rbinom(N,1,lp))
dat <- data.frame(Y=Y,X1=X1,X2=X2)

# single markers, one by one
r1 <- Roc(Y~X1,data=dat)
plot(r1,col=1)
r2 <- Roc(Y~X2,data=dat)
lines(r2,col=2)

# or, directly multiple in one
r12 <- Roc(list(Y~X1,Y~X2),data=dat)
plot(r12)

## compare logistic regression
lm1 <- glm(Y~X1,data=dat,family="binomial")
lm2 <- glm(Y~X1+X2,data=dat,family="binomial")
r1=Roc(list(LR.X1=lm1,LR.X1.X2=lm2))
summary(r1)
Brier(list(lm1,lm2))

# machine learning
library(randomForest)
dat$Y=factor(dat$Y)
rf <- randomForest(Y~X2,data=dat)
rocCV=Roc(list(RandomForest=rf,LogisticRegression=lm2),
    data=dat,
    splitMethod="bootcv",
    B=3,
    cbRatio=1)
plot(rocCV)

# compute .632+ estimate of Brier score
bs <- Brier(list(LR.X1=lm1,LR.X2=lm2),
    data=dat,
    splitMethod="boot632+",
    B=3)
bs
#'

ModelGood documentation built on May 31, 2017, 2:52 a.m.