cgec: Centred government expenditure centralization ratios

cgecR Documentation

Centred government expenditure centralization ratios


Centred government expenditure centralization (GEC) ratios




A list of two components. The first one is the curve_set object containing the observed values of centred GEC observed in year 1995-2016 for the above countries. The second component group gives the grouping.


The data includes the government expenditure centralization (GEC) ratio in percent that has been centred with respect to country average in order to remove the differences in absolute values of GEC. The GEC ratio is the ratio of central government expenditure to the total general government expenditure. Data were collected from the Eurostat (2018) database. Only those European countries were included, where the data were available from 1995 to 2016 without interruption. Finally, 29 countries were classified into three groups in the following way:

  • Group 1: Countries joining EC between 1958 and 1986 (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom. These countries have long history of European integration, representing the core of integration process.

  • Group 2: Countries joining the EU in 1995 (Austria, Sweden, Finland) and 2004 (Malta, Cyprus), except CEEC (separate group), plus highly economically integrated non-EU countries, EFTA members (Norway, Switzerland). Countries in this group have been, or in some case even still are standing apart from the integration mainstream. Their level of economic integration is however very high.

  • Group 3: Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC), having similar features in political end economic history. The process of economic and political integration have been initiated by political changes in 1990s. CEEC joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, data for Croatia joining in 2013 are incomplete, therefore not included).

This grouping is used in examples.


Eurostat (2018). "Government revenue, expenditure and main aggregates (gov10amain)”. Retrieved from

Mrkvička, T., Myllymäki, M., Jilek, M. and Hahn, U. (2020) A one-way ANOVA test for functional data with graphical interpretation. Kybernetika 56 (3), 432-458. doi: 10.14736/kyb-2020-3-0432

See Also



# Plot data in groups
for(i in 1:3)
  assign(paste0("p", i), plot(subset(cgec$cgec, cgec$group == i)) +
    ggplot2::labs(title=paste("Group ", i, sep=""), y="Centred GEC"))
if(require("patchwork", quietly=TRUE))
  p1 + p2 + p3

GET documentation built on Sept. 29, 2023, 5:06 p.m.