utcal.nc: Convert Temporal Amounts to UTC Referenced Dates

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

View source: R/RNetCDF.R

Description

Convert temporal amounts to UTC referenced date and time.

Usage

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utcal.nc(unitstring, value, type="n")

Arguments

unitstring

A temporal unit with an origin (e.g., “days since 1900-01-01”).

value

An amount (quantity) of the given temporal unit.

type

Character string which determines the output type. Can be n for numeric, s for string or c for POSIXct output.

Details

Converts the amount, value, of the temporal unit, unitstring, into a UTC-referenced date and time.

Functions utcal.nc and utinvcal.nc provide a convenient way to convert time values between the forms used by NetCDF variables and R functions. Most R functions require times to be expressed as seconds since the beginning of 1970 in the UTC time zone, typically using objects of class POSIXct or POSIXlt. NetCDF files store times in numeric variables with a wide variety of units. The units and calendar are stored in attributes of the time variable, as described by the CF Conventions. Units are expressed as a string, in the form of a time unit since a fixed date-time (e.g. “hours since 2000-01-01 00:00:00 +00:00”, or more simply “hours since 2000-01-01”).

The conversions of times between units are performed by the UDUNITS library using a mixed Gregorian/Julian calendar system. Dates prior to 1582-10-15 are assumed to use the Julian calendar, which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BCE and is based on a year that is exactly 365.25 days long. Dates on and after 1582-10-15 are assumed to use the Gregorian calendar, which was introduced on that date and is based on a year that is exactly 365.2425 days long. (A year is actually approximately 365.242198781 days long.) Seemingly strange behavior of the UDUNITS package can result if a user-given time interval includes the changeover date.

Conversions involving alternative calendars are not supported by UDUNITS, but they can be performed by other R packages. For example, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=PCICt implements 360- and 365-day calendars.

Value

If the output type is set to numeric, result is a matrix containing the corresponding date(s) and time(s), with the following columns: year, month, day, hour, minute, second. If the output type is string, result is a vector of strings in the form "YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss". Otherwise result is a vector of POSIXct values.

Author(s)

Pavel Michna, Milton Woods

References

https://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/udunits/

http://cfconventions.org

See Also

utinvcal.nc

Examples

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if (inherits(try(utcal.nc("seconds since 1970-01-01", 0)), "try-error")) {
  warning("UDUNITS calendar conversions not supported by this build of RNetCDF")

} else {

  ##  Convert units to UTC referenced time
  utcal.nc("hours since 1900-01-01 00:00:00 +01:00", c(0:5))
  utcal.nc("hours since 1900-01-01 00:00:00 +01:00", c(0:5), type="s")
  utcal.nc("hours since 1900-01-01 00:00:00 +01:00", c(0:5), type="c")

  ## Create netcdf file with a time coordinate variable.

  # Create a time variable (using type POSIXct for convenience):
  nt <- 24
  time_posixct <- seq(ISOdatetime(1900,1,1,0,0,0,tz="UTC"), by="hour", len=nt)

  # Convert time variable to specified units:
  time_unit <- "hours since 1900-01-01 00:00:00 +00:00"
  time_coord <- utinvcal.nc(time_unit, time_posixct)

  # Create a netcdf file:
  file1 <- tempfile("utcal_", fileext=".nc")
  nc <- create.nc(file1)

  # Global attributes:
  att.put.nc(nc, "NC_GLOBAL", "Conventions", "NC_CHAR", "CF-1.6")
  att.put.nc(nc, "NC_GLOBAL", "title", "NC_CHAR", "RNetCDF example: time coordinate")
  att.put.nc(nc, "NC_GLOBAL", "institution", "NC_CHAR", "University of Areland")
  att.put.nc(nc, "NC_GLOBAL", "source", "NC_CHAR", 
    paste("RNetCDF", utils::packageVersion("RNetCDF"), sep="_"))
  att.put.nc(nc, "NC_GLOBAL", "history", "NC_CHAR",
    paste(Sys.time(), "File created"))
  att.put.nc(nc, "NC_GLOBAL", "references", "NC_CHAR",
    "https://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/udunits")
  att.put.nc(nc, "NC_GLOBAL", "comment", "NC_CHAR",
    "Uses attributes recommended by http://cfconventions.org")

  # Define time coordinate and attributes:
  dim.def.nc(nc, "time", nt)
  var.def.nc(nc, "time", "NC_DOUBLE", "time")
  att.put.nc(nc, "time", "long_name", "NC_CHAR", "time")
  att.put.nc(nc, "time", "units", "NC_CHAR", time_unit)
  # Calendar is optional (gregorian is the default):
  att.put.nc(nc, "time", "calendar", "NC_CHAR", "gregorian")

  # Write the data:
  var.put.nc(nc, "time", time_coord)

  close.nc(nc)

  ## Read time coordinate from netcdf file:

  # Open the file prepared earlier:
  nc <- open.nc(file1)

  # Read time coordinate and attributes:
  time_coord2 <- var.get.nc(nc, "time")
  time_unit2 <- att.get.nc(nc, "time", "units")

  close.nc(nc)
  unlink(file1)

  # Convert the time variable to POSIXct:
  time_posixct2 <- utcal.nc(time_unit2, time_coord2, "c")

  # Compare with original POSIXct variable:
  stopifnot(all.equal(time_posixct, time_posixct2))

}

RNetCDF documentation built on Aug. 20, 2021, 9:08 a.m.