R/stv.R

Defines functions stv

Documented in stv

#' Implement STV Counting Systems
#'
#' Analyze a data frame of STV election ballot rankings and return
#' the elected voters and details of the steps in the election counting.
#'
#' Revise the details:
#' \code{stv()} first validates \code{x} by running the \code{validateBallots()} function.
#' Once validation is complete, it implements the selected single transferable vote
#' counting method. Each round of counting starts with idetification of active
#' ballots. Then a quota is calculated (currently only supports Droop method 
#' \code{floor(votes/(seats + 1)) + 1} and Hare method \code{floor(votes/seats)})
#' with or without the \code{floor()} rounding. A tally of each candidate's vote share 
#' is obtained using top choices of active ballots, where a ballot stays active until it 
#' runs out of marked choices or gets removed during surplus reallocation. If a candidate 
#' reaches the quota, she/he is elected and associated surplus ballots are reallocated 
#' (currently only supports Cambridge and Fractional methods). If multiple candidates reach 
#' the quota, all of them are elected and their surpluses are all reallocated. If no candidate 
#' reaches the quota, then the candidate with the minimum number of votes is eliminated. 
#' If multiple candidates tie for minimum number of votes, one of them is selected at random 
#' and eliminated. The process is repeated until all of the seats are filled or the number of 
#' candidates still in race equals the number of unfilled seats. In the later case, 
#' all of the active candidates are elected.
#'
#' @param x a data frame with rows of ballots and columns for each
#'     candidate. \code{x} must pass all checks from
#'     \code{\link{validateBallots}}.
#' @param seats an integer (default = 1) indicating candidates to elect.
#' @param file a character string naming a file; \code{""} (default) indicates 
#'     output to the console only (default), otherwise a CSV file is created
#'     (and thus \code{file} should end with \code{".csv"}).
#' @param surplusMethod a character string indicating which method to use for
#'     surplus allocation. Currently supports \code{"Cambridge"} (default) and
#'     \code{"Fractional"}.
#' @param quotaMethod a character string indicating which method to use for
#'     calculation of quota. Currently supports \code{"Droop"} (default) and 
#'     \code{"Hare"}.
#' @param quotaFloor a logical value indicating that candidates must reach
#'     the integer part of the quota in order to be elected if \code{"TRUE"} 
#'     (default) or that they must reach the exact quota which may be 
#'     fractional if \code{"FALSE"}.
#'
#' @return The object returned is a list consisting of two components: a
#'     vector of the elected candidates, and a data frame with rows containing
#'     detailed results from each round of STV counting.
#'     
#'     For every round of vote counting, a row of the detailed information
#'     contains: number of active ballots, seats to remaining to be filled,
#'     the current quota, the maximum and minimum votes obtained by each
#'     candidate, who was eliminated (if applicable), whether there was a
#'     tie for elimination (indicated by how many tied), who was elected
#'     (if applicable), the surplus if elected (or multiple surpluses if
#'     multiple candidates were elected), and each candidate's votes tally
#'     for that round.
#'
#' @examples
#' data(ballots)
#' cballots <- cleanBallots(ballots)
#' 
#' set.seed(1)
#' result1 <- stv(cballots, seats = 4)
#' names(result1)
#' result1$elected
#' 
#' set.seed(4)
#' result2 <- stv(cballots, seats = 4)
#' result2$elected
#' 
#' \dontrun{
#' result3 <- stv(cballots, seats = 4, surplusMethod = "Fractional")
#' result3$elected
#' 
#' result4 <- stv(cballots, seats = 4, surplusMethod = "Fractional",
#'                quotaMethod = "Hare")
#' result4$elected
#' 
#' result5 <- stv(cballots, seats = 4, surplusMethod = "Cambridge",
#'                quotaMethod = "Hare")
#' result5$elected
#' }
#' 
#' @export
stv <- function(x, seats = 1, file = "", surplusMethod = "Cambridge", 
                quotaMethod = "Droop", quotaFloor = TRUE) {

  # Ensure supported surpluse and quota methods are selected
  if (is.null(surplusMethod) | is.null(quotaMethod) | is.null(quotaFloor))
    stop("surplusMethod, quotaMethod, and quotaFloor must all be specified.")
  if (c(!surplusMethod %in% c("Cambridge", "Fractional") | length(surplusMethod) != 1)[1]) 
    stop("Please set surplusMethod = 'Cambridge' or 'Fractional'. These are currently the only supported methods.")
  if (c(!quotaMethod %in% c("Droop", "Hare") | length(quotaMethod) != 1)[1])
    stop("Please set quotaMethod = 'Droop' or 'Hare'. These are currently the only supported methods.")
  if (c(!quotaFloor %in% c(TRUE, FALSE) | length(quotaFloor) != 1)[1])
    stop("Please set quotaFloor = TRUE or FALSE.")
  
  junk <- validateBallots(x)

  if(seats > ncol(x)) 
    stop("Number of seats must be less than or equal to the number of candidates.")

  # Initialize various things:
  elim <- c()                                  # Store names of eliminated candidates
  elect <- c()                                 # Store names of elected candidates
  if (surplusMethod == "Cambridge") {
    included.ballots <- rep(TRUE, nrow(x))     # Ballots included at a given round
  }
  if (surplusMethod == "Fractional") {
    ballot.weights <- rep(1, nrow(x))          # Each ballot's weight at a given round
  }
  unfilled <- seats                            # Vacant seats at a given round
  Nround <- 0                                  # Current round number

  res <- data.frame(matrix(NA, ncol = 9 + ncol(x), nrow = 0))
  names(res) <- c("ballots", "seats.to.fill", "quota", "max.vote.count", "min.vote.count",
                  "elim.cand", "tied.for.elim", "elect.cand", "surplus", names(x))

  # Iteratively elect/eliminate candidates until all seats are filled:
  while (unfilled > 0) {
    Nround <- Nround + 1
    res[Nround, ] <- rep(NA, ncol(res))
    res$seats.to.fill[Nround] <- unfilled
    curr.candidates <- setdiff(names(x), c(elim, elect))

    # Check if #remaining candidates already equal #unfilled seats:
    if (unfilled == length(curr.candidates)) {
      elect <- c(elect, curr.candidates)
      res$elect.cand[Nround] <- paste(curr.candidates, collapse = "; ")
      res$seats.to.fill[Nround] <- 0
      res[Nround, elect] <- "Elected"
      res[Nround, elim] <- "Eliminated"
      res$quota[Nround] <- "Won by elim"

      if (file != "") {
        if (substr(file, nchar(file)-3, nchar(file)) != ".csv") 
          warning("File name provided does not include .csv extention")
        write.table(res, file = file, sep = ",", row.names = FALSE)
      }

      return(list("elected" = elect, "details" = res))
    }

    # For remaining candidates, get valid ballots (1. not empty 2. not excluded in prior round)
    if (surplusMethod == "Cambridge") {
      curr.ballots <- (rowSums(!is.na(x[ ,curr.candidates])) > 0) & included.ballots
      ballot.size <- sum(curr.ballots)
    }
    if (surplusMethod == "Fractional") {
      curr.ballots <- rowSums(!is.na(x[ ,curr.candidates])) > 0
      ballot.size <- floor(sum(curr.ballots*ballot.weights))
    }
    res$ballots[Nround] <- ballot.size

    # Calculate Quota:
    if (quotaFloor) {
      if (quotaMethod == "Droop") quota <- floor(ballot.size/(unfilled + 1)) + 1
      if (quotaMethod == "Hare") quota <- floor(ballot.size/unfilled)
    } else {
      if (quotaMethod == "Droop") quota <- ballot.size/(unfilled + 1) + 1
      if (quotaMethod == "Hare") quota <- ballot.size/unfilled
    }
    
    res$quota[Nround] <- round(quota, 2)

    # Get top choice for each valid ballot then tabulate it (i.e. get vote count for each candidate):
    top.choice <- apply(x[ ,curr.candidates], 1, function(i.row) names(x[ ,curr.candidates])[which.min(i.row)])
    top.choice[!curr.ballots] <- NA
    vote.counts <- table(factor(top.choice, levels = curr.candidates))
    
    if (surplusMethod == "Fractional") {
      for (i in 1:length(vote.counts)) {
        weighted.votes <- (names(vote.counts[i]) == top.choice)*ballot.weights 
        vote.counts[i] <- sum(weighted.votes, na.rm = TRUE)
      }
    }
    
    res[Nround, names(vote.counts)] <- round(vote.counts, 2)
    res$max.vote.count[Nround] <- round(max(vote.counts), 2)
    res$min.vote.count[Nround] <- round(min(vote.counts), 2)
    res[Nround, elect] <- "Elected"
    res[Nround, elim] <- "Eliminated"

    # Check for elected candidate(s): If quota crossed, surplus distribution.
    #   else: eliminate a candidate and redistribute votes
    if (any(vote.counts >= quota)) {
      curr.elected <- vote.counts[vote.counts >= quota]
      
      if(length(curr.elected) > unfilled) {
        warning(paste0("In round ", Nround, ", more candidates met the quota than can be elected to open seats. Ties were broken randomly."))
        curr.elected <- sample(curr.elected, unfilled)
      }  
      
      elect <- c(elect, names(curr.elected))
      unfilled <- seats - length(elect)
      res$elect.cand[Nround] <- paste(names(curr.elected), collapse = "; ")
      res$surplus[Nround] <- paste(round(curr.elected - quota, 2), collapse = "; ")

      # Redistribute surplus votes
      for (i in names(curr.elected)) {
        cand.ballots <- which(top.choice == i)
        if (surplusMethod == "Cambridge") {
          included.ballots[sample(cand.ballots, quota)] <- FALSE
        }
        if (surplusMethod == "Fractional") {
          ballot.weights[cand.ballots] <- ballot.weights[cand.ballots]*(vote.counts[i] - quota)/vote.counts[i]
        }
      } # CLOSE surplus realocation

    } else {
      curr.elim <- names(which(vote.counts == min(vote.counts)))
      if (length(curr.elim) > 1) res$tied.for.elim[Nround] <- paste("Yes: ", length(curr.elim), sep = "")
      elim <- c(elim, sample(curr.elim, 1))
      res$elim.cand[Nround] <- tail(elim, 1)
    } # CLOSE elim/elect if-else function

  } # CLOSE while-loop

  if (file != "") {
    if (substr(file, nchar(file)-3, nchar(file)) != ".csv") 
      warning("File name provided does not include .csv extention")
    write.table(res, file = file, sep = ",", row.names = FALSE)
  }

  return(list("elected" = elect, "details" = res))
}

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STV documentation built on May 2, 2019, 4:01 a.m.